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Cultural Giants and Little People_Guangming.com

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Cultural Giants and Little People_Guangming.com


Author: Chen Shixu

“Su Shi” is a topic that has been talked about too much, and countless people adore Su Shi so much. He is as dazzling as the sun, so that people often don’t notice the little dusty people who run through his life.

Fortunately, Su Shi is not a thin lover. The figures of these little people flashed in his poems from time to time.

1079, the dark spring. The poet who escaped death walked out of Yushitai, from an official to a wanderer, from a prosperous Kyoto to a remote town.

For four full years and four months, bamboo hats and sandals, morning revival and evening return. The Deputy Envoy of Tuanlian in Huangzhou had to reclaim barren sloping land in order to support his family of more than 20 people. Therefore, there was a “Dongpo Layman” among the ranks of China‘s greatest poets. Hanging out with fishermen and woodcutters, cooking tea with monks, drinking wine with fellow lovers or going out at night, I don’t know the whiteness of the East.

The excellent prose “Journey to Chengtian Temple at Night” truly records the fragments. The moonlight in the opening chapter is very humane: the family is cold, but the moonlight is not snobbish, and comes to keep company with the “sinner”. The poet’s drowsiness disappeared, he stood up in his clothes, and greeted him happily. Then he “walked in the atrium” with Zhang Huaimin, who lived in Chengtian Temple.

“What night is there no moon? Where is there no bamboo and cypress? But there are few idlers like the two of us.” “Idlers” seem to be self-deprecating, but they are conceited: there are moonlit nights everywhere, how many people are there to enjoy the moon? Not without sadness, but also with comfort, “Huaimin has not gone to sleep”, as expected. With the word “Yi”, the two people have the same interests.

From Su Zhe’s “Huangzhou Kuaizai Pavilion”, we can know that Zhang Huaimin in the article, named Mengde, styled Huaimin, was born in Qinghe, Hebei. He was also relegated to Huangzhou when Su Shi was relegated to Huangzhou for almost four years.

The so-called life is enough to have a bosom friend. On a cold night, a depressed and frustrated exile, there is a person who is also not interested in fame and fortune but can leisurely linger in the scene, accompanying him to wander in the “like stagnant water, empty and bright, the water is full of algae and midges, covered with bamboo and cypress shadows”. “Under the court”, how commendable it is!

Dedicated to friends, the bright moon on the river, the cool breeze in the mountains, accompanied by the poet’s indulgence. One word and two poems, shocking the past and shining the present, a period of splendid literary history solidified into “Red Cliff”.

Ming Qiuying’s “Red Cliff Scroll” part

In 1094, Su Shi was once again convicted for his speech and was demoted to Huizhou, a barren and plagued place at that time.

Throughout Su Shi’s life, there were countless framers and admirers. Regardless of good times or bad times, even if the world is far apart, the latter has a deep affection for him and will never leave him.

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“Farewell to Tanxiu”, “Farewell to Wang Zizhi” and “Zhuo Qishun Zen Talk” can be found in Su Shi’s Huizhou Miscellaneous Notes. Tanxiu, Wang Zizhi and Zhuo Qishun traveled thousands of miles to Huizhou to visit Su Shi who was in distress. The first two are old friends of Su Shi, and the third is a temple servant, who was dispatched by the elder Shouqin of Dinghui Temple in Suzhou. Tanxiu stayed with Su Shi for ten days, the prince stayed for seventy days, and Zhuo Qishun returned immediately after meeting Su Shi.

The expression of their communication shows extreme sincerity from extreme plainness.

The breakup scenes are all touching. Tanxiu “will go”, Su Shi asked, when you go back, what should you bring to those “mountain” people? Tanxiu said “the breeze in the goose city, the bright moon in the crane ridge”, I’m afraid they have nowhere to put it. Saying farewell to the prince, Su Shi specially wrote Qilu, saying that you and I are separated by thousands of miles of clouds and mountains. When you came, your clothes were already torn. I really want to wear a scarf and go with you.

The most dramatic one is Zhuo Qishun. Wading the river and crossing the mountains, eating and sleeping in the open air, walking thousands of miles, when he arrived in Huizhou, his face was callused, like a savage. When we first met, Su Shi smiled and asked did you bring a gift? Zhuo Qishun “shows both hands”. Su Shi pretended to be disappointed and said that it is a pity that you have traveled thousands of miles, but you came empty-handed. Zhuo Qishun “took the burden”, turned around and left. What Zhuo Qishun said was Zen words: come empty-handed and return with a full load.

I have read so many poems and essays by Su Shi, but this temple servant is the most unforgettable.

Su Shi’s most important companion in Huizhou is undoubtedly Wang Chaoyun.

A humble singing girl from Qiantang, with both sensuality, art and intelligence, she gave up her wonderful youth and identified a poet with a bad fate, and she did not hesitate to follow her into the wilderness. From Qiantang to Lingnan, from prosperity to desolation. The morning is cloud and the evening is rain, how much tenderness!

  The flowers fade and the red and green apricots are small. When the swallows, green water around people. There are few willows blowing on the branches. There is no fragrant grass anywhere in the world.

The swing inside the wall is outside the wall. There are people outside the wall, and the beautiful people inside the wall laugh. The laughter gradually faded away. Passionate but ruthless annoyed.

(Su Shi’s “Butterfly Love Flower·Flowers Fade Residual Red and Green Apricots”)

“Zizhan was in Huizhou, sitting with Chaoyun. At that time, the young girl had just arrived, and the falling trees were rustling, with a sense of sadness in autumn. He ordered Chaoyun to catch the white and sing ‘The flowers fade to red’. Chaoyun’s voice will sing, and tears will fill his clothes. .”

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The poet is clumsy, walks straight, and is repeatedly demoted. “Passionate but ruthlessly annoyed” is self-deprecating. Only Wang Chaoyun can sing the poet’s deepest thoughts; only Wang Chaoyun knows that he is “out of season”.

“Chaoyun died of illness not long after, and Zizhan never listened to this word for the rest of his life.”

Entered the Su family at the age of 12, became a concubine at the age of 20, and went away at the age of 34, taking away the sadness and pain of losing the child, together with Miaoman’s singing and bright smile. The last ray of light that illuminates the dark years is extinguished in the pine forest in Lingnan.

“It’s not the right time, only Chaoyun can know me; I play old tunes alone, and I miss you every time it rains.”

The moonlight is like water, and the sky shines on the lake and mountains. No more holding hands, no more sentimental romance. “When you are sad, you will repay the previous debt, and you will break the back in three lives.”

Su Shi did not disappoint those people. In Huizhou for three years, famous poems and articles have been published one after another. The Barrens thus shines brightly. “Since Mr. Po was relegated to the South China Sea, the world dare not belittle Huizhou.”

Those who admire stand upright, those who are jealous gnash their teeth, and there is nothing authoritarian can do. The only thing an adversary in the temple can do is push it into a corner.

Hainan, which is thousands of miles away from the capital, is the end of the sky and the corner of the sea in the eyes of the Central Plains people. As the saying goes: “The gate of hell, ten people go, nine will not return.” The exiles from Tang and Song Dynasties passed through here, and the dead followed one after another. In the Song Dynasty, exile to Hainan was only a lesser punishment than copying and beheading.

In 1097, Su Shi, who was over 60 years old, set foot on the vast waves of Qionghai alone with his young son. He told his relatives that he was ready to “survive forever”, and told his friends: “A certain old man has thrown himself into the wilderness, with no hope of returning to life… Now in Hainan, the first one is used as a coffin, and the second one is used as a tomb. If you die, you will be buried overseas.”

For an old man, this is a very difficult time: “There is no food here, no medicine for illness, no room to live in, no friends to go out, no charcoal in winter, no cold spring in summer, but it is not easy to list them all. No ears.” “The weather in Lingnan is low and humid, and the earth’s atmosphere is steamy, but Hainan is the worst. At the turn of summer and autumn, everything rots. People are not metal and stone, how can they last?”

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An envoy of the imperial court came to Hainan to investigate the situation of the exiled officials, and found that Su Shi was receiving courtesy from the county magistrate and living in the official residence. As a result, the county magistrate was dismissed and Su Shi was expelled from the official residence.

The local people readily accepted Su Shi. Build land and houses for him beside his own village, help him mow grass and wood (“Lend me three acres of land, and we will make thatch as a neighbor”); , the sea breeze is cold this year”); early in the morning, when he was still sleeping on the bed, local hunters would knock on the door and give him the venison he had just hunted, or the prepared betel nuts (“betel nuts instead of tea”) ). He chatted with the farmers under the betel nut tree, and they told him ghost stories, “Huayi two bottles together, drunk and laughing together”. An old peasant woman saw him walking by with a watermelon on his head like the natives, and joked: “Neihan was rich in the past, a dream of love.” Every time a girl from the east neighbors needs to change her fan, she can only change her fan.” He went to a local house to visit, and when it rained, the owner gave him a hat, coir raincoat and wooden clogs. He walked home on the muddy village road, the dogs barked and the villagers laughed, and he sang happily: “If you can learn the tongue, you can become a Limu citizen.”

Su Shi is a vigorous tree, and Li Mumin is a deep land. From a cultural point of view, the losers are the winners, losing the favor of the emperor, but gaining the love of the people.

Hainan thus became a stage for Su Shi to showcase his genius, and his writings entered their peak period. “Dongpo’s articles are unmatched by people after Huangzhou, but Huang Luzhi’s poems can compete. When crossing the sea in his later years, Lu Zhi is also behind him!” (Zhu Bian’s “Fengyuetang Poetry Talk”)

Exiled in Hainan, let Su Shi’s literary achievements surpass all others.

The paradox of history determines: the lonely become holy. For thousands of years, many emperors and generals have long since disappeared, but Su Shi has always stood tall.

The reason for Su Shi’s success is that his life has a strong support.

Outstanding talent, excellent personality and absolute self-confidence are the three pillars of Su Shi’s life. And this self-confidence largely comes from the sincere respect and love of the people. Among them, in addition to honest colleagues in official careers and arts and literature, there are more little-known low-level people such as handymen, singing girls, and Li Mumin.

This may be the greatest pride of a cultural giant who has gone through hardships.

“Guangming Daily” (page 15, November 25, 2022)

责编:王蕾 ]

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