Home Health Disabled: in Italy over 3 million, 1 in 3 lives alone and welfare weighs on families. Mattarella: “Breaking down the barriers”

Disabled: in Italy over 3 million, 1 in 3 lives alone and welfare weighs on families. Mattarella: “Breaking down the barriers”

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Today is the International Day of Persons with Disabilities. Istat data provide a picture of substantial fragility in our country, “with obvious disadvantages” for the disabled compared to the rest of the population.

The President of the Republic Sergio Mattarella also expressed himself on the importance of removing the brriere that still exclude and limit the rights of people with disabilities: “The path undertaken in recent years for the protection of the rights of people with disabilities, also based on of the principles contained in the United Nations Convention on the subject, has allowed, with the precious help of families, associations and structures in charge, the achievement of important goals of autonomy. In recent years, people with disabilities have been able to improve their achievement in work, in art, in music, in theater, in sport and in every area of ​​social life. Breaking down every barrier, which limits and excludes, contributes every day to underlining the positive value of diversity “.

In our country, in 2019, people with disabilities, or those who suffer from health problems, from serious limitations that prevent them from carrying out usual activities, are 3 million and 150 thousand (5.2% of the population).

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The elderly are the most affected: nearly one and a half million over 75 (22% of the population in that age group) are disabled and one million of them are women.

Distribution on the territory

The “geography of disability” sees the islands in first place, with a prevalence of 6.5%, against 4.5% in the North West. The regions in which the phenomenon is most widespread are Umbria and Sardinia (respectively, 6.9% and 7.9% of the population).

Lombardy and Trentino Alto Adige, on the other hand, are the Regions with the lowest prevalence: 4.1% and 3.8% respectively.

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29% of people with disabilities live alone, 27.4% with their spouse, 16.2% with their spouse and children, 7.4% with their children and without a spouse, about 9% with one or both parents, the remaining 11% live in other types of family.

The ability to move freely is very limited among people with disabilities. The data on mobility, relating to 2019, we read in the document released by Istat last March, show that only 14.4% of people with disabilities travel by urban public transport, compared to 25.5% of the rest of the population. . These differences vary greatly with age.

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Physical or sexual violence suffered by women reaches 31.5% in their lifetime, but for women with health problems or disabilities the situation is more critical. Physical or sexual violence reaches 36% among those who declare they have poor health, 36.6% among those with severe limitations.

The family, in our country in particular, plays an important role in treating and combating the risk of social exclusion.

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Families of people with disabilities enjoy on average a lower level of economic well-being: according to the latest available estimates, their average equivalent annual income (including transfers by the state) is € 17,476, which is 7.8% lower. to the national one.

The resources needed by the family to carry out the role of social safety net are not only economic, but also of a relational type: 32.4% of families with at least one disabled person receive support from informal networks (almost double the total number of families 16.8%). The range of aid provided by the network includes personal assistance, accompaniment and hospitality, domestic activities, completion of bureaucratic procedures and health services.

The inclusion policies implemented over the years have favored a progressive increase in school participation: in the year 2019/2020 the pupils with disabilities who attend Italian schools are almost 300,000, over 13,000 students more than the previous year. These pupils were taken care of by about 176,000 support teachers, 1.7 for each teacher; however, it should be noted that 37% do not have specific training.

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Furthermore, policies and interventions for school integration still suffer from the lack of technological tools: the provision of computer stations is insufficient in 28% of schools.

Another critical aspect concerns the presence of architectural barriers: only one school out of 3 is accessible for pupils with motor disabilities.

The opportunities for pupils with disabilities to participate in school have been limited due to the pandemic which made distance learning necessary. Between April and June 2020, over 23% of pupils with disabilities (about 70 thousand) did not take part in the lessons (the other students who did not participate, on the other hand, account for 8% of those enrolled).

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