Particular attention should be paid to LDL cholesterol. There are many medicines available
Once the fateful threshold of the “doors” has been exceeded, cardiovascular diseases are very common. Various factors increase the risk of developing these pathologies, including dyslipidemia. This term refers to a increase in blood lipid values. Among these substances, some are more dangerous than others. To keep them under control, it is important to practice physical activity and follow a healthy diet. And when these good habits aren’t enough, you can rely on very effective drugs.
DYSLIPIDEMIA: 4 RISK CLASSES FOR LDL CHOLESTEROL
If no dyslipidemia should be taken lightly, there are some substances that should be monitored more than others, as they expose to greater health risks. The lipids to keep under control are triglycerides and, above all, cholesterol. In particular, a specific fraction of the latter is very important: the so-called “bad” cholesterol, which in scientific terms is called Ldl. “If until a few years ago an LDL cholesterol limit was indicated that was valid for everyone, regardless of health conditions, recently the European Society of Cardiology has indicated different thresholds depending on the cardiovascular risk of each subject” explains the Professor Daniele Andreini, head of the Clinical Cardiology and Cardiac Imaging and Sports Cardiology Unit at the Irccs Galeazzi-Sant’Ambrogio Hospital in Milan. The cardiovascular risk in people with dyslipidemias has been divided by the European Society of Cardiology into 4 stages: low, moderate, high and very high. Individuals at low risk should maintain LDL cholesterol levels below 116 mg/dL, those at moderate risk below 100 mg/dL, those at high risk below 70 mg/dL, and those at very high risk. below 55 mg/dl.
DYSLIPIDEMIA: YES TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, BUT…
In the case of dyslipidemia, how do you assess which risk class a person falls into? “In addition to age, various factors are taken into consideration, such as LDL cholesterol values greater than 190 mg/dL, serious arterial hypertension, a family history of coronary heart disease which has caused heart attacks, moderate renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus longtime. The presence of just one of these conditions is enough to be at high risk while the risk is very high when there is also coronary artery disease” replies Professor Andreini. Dyslipidemias, including the increase in LDL cholesterol values, are favored by a sedentary lifestyle, being overweight, an unregulated diet (and in particular rich in fats and sugars, especially if consumed in the evening) and also genetic predisposition. To keep blood lipid levels under control, it is therefore important to follow a healthy diet that avoids the accumulation of extra kilos and to carry out regular physical activity, preferring aerobic disciplines. “People with dyslipidemia and with a very high risk of a cardiovascular event should consult with their doctor to establish how to train. The practice of a sport can in fact also be the basis of a clinical event, for example a heart attack” observes the expert.
DRUGS TO LOWER LDL CHOLESTEROL
Especially when there is a genetic predisposition towards dyslipidemia and LDL cholesterol levels need to be significantly lowered, adopting healthy lifestyles may not be enough. Fortunately, today there are a variety of medications available to bring this substance within limits. The first choice remain the statins, which, however, combine significant side effects with excellent efficacy, in particular muscle pain. This medicine can be combined with theof the time, the use of which generally does not expose to relevant problems. If these drugs don’t bring the desired results, you can rely on them PCSK9 protein inhibitors. These are monoclonal antibodies, which are injected under the skin every two to three weeks. “It has only been available for a few months inclisiran, a drug that interferes with messenger RNA and which ’embodies’ the concept of precision medicine. Due to its duration it has been renamed the ‘atherosclerosis vaccine‘: after the first injection under the skin you have to wait 3 months for the second, after which the administration, which takes place in the hospital or in any case by a healthcare professional, becomes every six months” concludes the professor Andreini.
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