Blood pressure: what are the normal values and what are the worrying ones? Pressure varies from individual to individual, depending on age, body weight and lifestyle.
But which ones can be considered normal? Which are the worrying ones? How to understand if we suffer from hypertension or hypotension? What values are considered ideal?
In the article we see how to measure pressure, what are the normal values and when they are worrying.
What is blood pressure
What is blood pressure? It measures the push blood exerts on artery walls as it flows. Obviously, there are several factors that influence blood pressure values (which varies according to different factors) whose parameters can indicate high or low blood pressure.
The rate and force with which the heart contracts to push blood into the blood vessels, as well as the amount of blood in circulation, are very important elements in establishing your state of health.
Systolic blood pressure – that is, the maximum – is that measured when the heart beats and contracts; while, diastolic blood pressure – that is, the minimum – is measured between beats, when the heart is relaxed. The lower the values, the lower the risk of mortality.
How is blood pressure measured?
How to proceed with blood pressure measurement? First of all, we specify that the values vary according to the time of day in which the pressure is measured.
The values are higher in the early morning hours – when, in fact, most heart attacks or strokes occur – and after a walk; while, during the night, tendentially, pressure tends to decrease by about 10-20 percent.
If the pressure were to remain high in the evening and at night, there would be a risk factor.
Ecco how to measure blood pressure the right way:
- The bracelet must be of the right size to avoid measurement errors;
- Sit correctly, with your feet flat on the floor;
- Do not smoke, drink alcohol or coffee and do not exercise in the 30 minutes preceding the measurement;
- You will have to carry out at least 2-3 consecutive measurements, at a distance of about one minute from each other and then take an average to get a correct value;
- The arm on which you will carry out the measurement must be brought to heart height and placed on a flat surface (a table);
- The measurement should take place, more or less, at the same time of day.
Generally, more attention is paid to systolic blood pressure (maximum)as it seems to be the one most implicated with a greater cardiovascular risk, especially after the age of 50.
Table of pressure values
In order to understand if your blood pressure values are normal or if, on the other hand, they are high or low, we have prepared this table with the ideal values and with those that should worry us instead.
|Dangerous low blood pressure||below 50/33 mmHg|
|Pressure too low||below 60/40 mmHg|
|Low pressure||below 90/60 mmHg|
|Optimal blood pressure||120/80 mmHg|
|Acceptable blood pressure||below 130/85 mmHg|
|Stage I hypertension||140-159/90-99 mmHg|
|Stage II hypertension||superiore a 160/100 mmHg|
How to tell if your blood pressure values are normal or worrying?
In adulthood values between 115 and 135 mmHg of systolic blood pressure and between 75 and 85 mmHg of diastolic blood pressure, are considered normal.
For example, in children up to 13 years of age, normal values are higher: from 95 mmHg of diastolic to 135 of systolic. For the over 65s, the values range from 121 to 147 for the highest, from 83 to 91 for the lowest.
Systolic pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries, during the contraction phase of the heart; while the diastolic pressure is the one measured between one contraction of the heart and the next, or when the muscle is relaxed.
Normal blood pressure values are those found within the indicated ranges. Above them we speak low or high blood pressure, hypotension or hypertension. In subjects in which the values are higher than the average, we speak of hypertension and precisely in them the cardiovascular risk increases.
Causes of high and low blood pressure
In the case of high blood pressure or low blood pressure, the causes are different. It is important to underline that an alarm does not always have to go off because sometimes the sudden change in values does not represent a cardiovascular problem, but only a passing event.
In fact, blood pressure can vary due to:
- excessive heat or excessive cold;
- of aerobic activity;
- del forte stress;
- of dehydration;
- of pregnancy.
That’s why according to the World Health Organization, at least three measurements are needed at a distance of one week from each other to confirm or not the existence of a disorder related to the cardiovascular system.
The causes of low blood pressure can be:
The causes of low blood pressure may include:
- Medical conditions, such as diabetes and hypoglycemia, arrhythmia or tachycardia;
- Health conditions, such as dehydration, diarrhea, bleeding, major burns;
- Medications such as diuretics, beta-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants and narcotics;
- Infections quite serious, such as septicemia;
- Thyroid dysfunction, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism;
- Allergic reactions;
- Neurological, cardiac or hormonal disorders;
- Individual predisposition;
The main cause of high blood pressureInstead, they are as follows:
- Medicines, since the use of the latter – such as, for example, the contraceptive pill, decongestants, over-the-counter analgesics and some prescription drugs – can affect blood pressure values;
- Kidney disorders;
- Tumors of the adrenal glands;
- Congenital heart malformations;
- Use of narcotics, such as amphetamines and cocaine;
- In some cases, even pregnancy (with the outbreak of gestosis).
Remember to measure your blood pressure at least three times, on the same arm, one minute apart and then average the values. This way the measurement will be more accurate.
Cures and natural remedies to lower or raise blood pressure
If certain symptoms and signs occur, it is advisable to go to the doctor – especially in the case of hypertension – so that establish the most appropriate diagnosis and therapy for each caseobviously after having performed the classic visit, studied the symptoms, measured the blood pressure and performed all the necessary tests and analyses.
What are the remedies for hypertension and hypotension? If the pressure is high or low, depending on the specific case, the doctor may prescribe drug therapy (especially in the case of hypertension, more risky for health).
- In the case of hypertension it is important to lose weight, not smoke, not drink alcohol or coffee, eat low-salted and non-industrialized foods, do meditation or yoga to reduce stress and anxiety. There are some foods that are great for lowering blood pressure.
- In the case of hypotension it is important to drink liquids and supplement your diet with essential nutrients – such as vitamins B and C – reduce the consumption of animal fats and eat salt, even if in moderation. In this article you will find out what to eat in case of low blood pressure.
If your blood pressure drops suddenly, it is important to drink a glass of water and sit or lie down, raising the legs above the level of the heart: in this way, in fact, we can restore adequate blood flow.
It is also useful to put a little salt under the tongue or eat licorice. Both foods, in fact, have the ability to raise blood pressure.
Blood pressure: when to be alarmed
In case the systolic blood pressure does not return to optimal or normal after about fifteen minutes, we will have to go to the emergency roomas soon as possible.
This is a measure to be taken even in case the diastolic blood pressure is too high and cannot lower itself.
Consulting a doctor is always essential, because he will be able to review the dosage of any medications to be taken or start an indispensable treatment.
La prognosis by the doctor, will depend on several factors such as the timeliness of intervention, the triggering causes and severity of the condition, as well as the age and state of health of the patient.
With the initiation of drug therapy, especially in the case of hypertension, the risk of cardiovascular disorders is reduced and it is possible to keep the pathology under control, living a more than normal life.
Other forms of hypertension other than arterial hypertension, but still serious, are ocular hypertension and pulmonary hypertension.