Inhaled nano spray puts “protective clothing” on the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract
Science and Technology Daily News (Reporter Chen Xi, Correspondent Zhao Hui) Recently, the Institute of Medical Engineering and Translational Medicine of Tianjin University (hereinafter referred to as the Institute of Medical Engineering) has developed an inhaled nano-spray that can stimulate the immune protection of the respiratory mucosa to block the passage of viruses. The respiratory tract invades the body. Experimental comparison data show that compared with intramuscular injection, this inhalable nanospray can induce the same level of immunoglobulin (IgG) antibody production. More importantly, it can specifically activate the respiratory mucosal immunity and produce a higher titer of secretion. Type immunoglobulin (SIgA), which makes the respiratory mucosa have a stronger protective effect, is expected to provide a new method for the prevention of respiratory viruses. The research results were recently published in the “Journal of Chemical Engineering”.
It is understood that the new coronavirus is mainly transmitted through the respiratory tract, and the respiratory mucosa is the first barrier to prevent the invasion of respiratory viruses. It is essential to activate mucosal immunity to protect the body from viral infections. However, the current vaccines are all vaccination-type immunizations, so they must be vaccinated by professional medical personnel in specially designated institutions. In addition, there is a risk of pain and easy infection.
The R&D team of the Institute of Medical Engineering has developed a new type of nano-spray by constructing nanoparticles that mimic the new coronavirus. The virus-like particle is composed of three parts: capsid, spike protein, and nucleic acid. The capsid of the virus-like particles is composed of biomimetic lung surface-active liposomes. When the surface-active protein in the lungs is combined with the biomimetic lung surface-active liposomes, the virus-like particles can be efficiently transported into the lung macrophages. It solves the defect that vaccines are difficult to enter the body during routine respiratory tract vaccination; nucleic acid Poly(I:C) is an immune adjuvant, as an immune activation “helper”, which can efficiently activate the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) pathway and trigger a variety of Immune activates the secretion of cytokines, thereby mobilizing a variety of immune cells to improve the immune response efficiency of the vaccine; the outer layer of liposomes can be used as a sting for virus-like nanoparticles by catalyzing and covalently linking the neocoronavirus antigen receptor binding domain (RBD) protein Spike protein.
Zheng Bin, the first author of the research paper and associate professor of Tianjin University School of Medical Engineering, said that this structure completely mimics the size, structure and infection mode of the new coronavirus, which can more efficiently activate the body’s respiratory mucosal immunity to obtain better resistance. The effect of new coronavirus infection.
Animal experiment results show that compared with intramuscular injection and subcutaneous injection, inhalation vaccination can specifically activate respiratory mucosal immunity, effectively activate T and B lymphocytes in the respiratory tract, and produce high titers of anti-SARS-CoV in the respiratory mucosa. -2 secreted immunoglobulin (SIgA) to efficiently neutralize viruses that invade through the respiratory tract and prevent them from entering the body. The spray composition is clear and simple, and has good safety and universal applicability. The spray vaccination method is also easier to be accepted by the subjects.
It is reported that the current scientific research results have been docked with enterprises to carry out cooperative research, with a view to conducting clinical trials.