There were 13 representatives participating in the “First Congress” of the CCP: Shanghai representatives Li Da and Li Hanjun; Beijing representatives: Zhang Guotao and Liu Renjing; Changsha representatives: Mao Zedong and He Shuheng; Wuhan representatives: Dong Biwu and Chen Tanqiu; Jinan representatives: Wang Jinmei and Deng Enming; Guangzhou representatives: Chen Public Bo; Japanese student representatives: Zhou Fohai; Chen Duxiu appointed representative Bao Huiseng to participate. Also attending the meeting were two foreigners, Nikolsky and Marin representing the Communist International.
Decades later, the outcome of the founders of these parties was amazing: more than half of those who died early, were shot by the enemy, seceded from the party, rebelled against the party, were expelled or became traitors, and only 2 remained after experiencing tragic internal fighting. people.
Among the 13 people, Chen Gongbo and Zhou Fohai later became “traitors” punished by the Nationalist government.
Chen Gongbo announced his withdrawal from the CCP in June 1922. After the Anti-Japanese War, he was the second person in the Wang Jingwei regime. After Wang Jingwei’s death, Chen Gongbo acted as Chairman of the Nanjing National Government and President of the Executive Yuan. After Japan surrendered in World War II, he fled to Japan, and was finally escorted back to China, where he was shot after interrogation.
After Zhou Fohai became an official of the Kuomintang, he was one of the leaders of the Nanjing National Government established by Wang Jingwei during the War of Resistance Against Japan. He was arrested for being considered a traitor to Japan and sentenced to death on November 7, 1946. In 1948, he was reduced to life imprisonment. On February 28, 1948, Zhou Fohai died of a heart attack in Laohuqiao Prison, Nanjing, at the age of 50.
Li Hanjun, who was in charge of preparing for the “big one”, left the Chinese Communist Party the following year after the meeting. On December 17, 1927, he was executed by Hu Zongduo, the warlord of the Gui family and the commander of the Wuhan garrison. He was 37 years old.
At 6 o’clock in the morning on April 5, 1931, Deng Enming was sentenced to death and executed by the Shandong Provincial Provisional Military Judicial Committee. He was only 30 years old.
On February 24, 1935, He Shuheng was surrounded by Kuomintang troops at Shuikou in Changting, Fujian. He jumped off the cliff and died at the age of 59.
On September 27, 1943, Chen Tanqiu was secretly executed by Xinjiang warlord Sheng Shicai at the age of 47.
Liu Renjing was expelled from the Chinese Communist Party in 1929 and was imprisoned in Qincheng Prison during the Cultural Revolution. He was released at the end of 1978. On August 5, 1987, Liu Renjing was hit by a bus in Beijing and was sent to hospital and died. He was 85 years old.
Li Da and Li Hanjun prepared for the “First National Congress”. In the autumn of 1923, Li Da formally left the CCP. Later, Liu Shaoqi introduced Mao Zedong, Li Weihan, Zhang Qingxue and others as historical witnesses, and Li Da rejoined the CCP in December 1949. But that doesn’t count. In July 1966, Kang Sheng claimed that Li Da was expelled from the party and was a traitor. Later, Li Da was criticized and died at the age of 76.
Bao Huiseng joined the Kuomintang by the order of the Chinese Communist Party in 1924 and served as the director of the political department of the Whampoa Military Academy. In 1927, Bao Huiseng seceded from the Chinese Communist Party. On July 2, 1979, Bao Huiseng died of illness at the age of 85.
Wang Jinmei died very early. On August 19, 1926, he died of severe lung disease in Qingdao Hospital at the age of 27.
Zhang Guotao, regarded as a “traitor” by the CCP, is the only CCP representative among the “CCP veterans” who has met Lenin. When he led the Fourth Red Army, he used power for a while, but later failed to defeat Mao Zedong in the CCP’s internal struggle. On April 2, 1938, Zhang Guotao, who was the acting chairman of the Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia Border District Government, left Yan’an alone and fled to Chongqing.
On April 5, 1938, Zhang Guotao issued his withdrawal from the CCP in Wuhan.
In 1948, Zhang Guotao founded the “Chuang Jin” weekly magazine in Shanghai and published an article denounced: the Communist Party “in order to seize power” “has no moral ethics and no scruples about the survival of the country”, “it does not hesitate to regard the people as humble dogs”, “the long history of 20 years” Over the years, the Communist Party has been immersed in massacre, destruction, and disturbance.” “Assuming that the Communist Party’s’armed revolution’ succeeds, following the military conquest of power, it is bound to be a kind of dictatorship.”
Zhang Guotao eventually retired and moved to Canada with his family in 1968. In 1979, Zhang Guotao died in Toronto, Canada, at the age of 82.
Among the representatives of the “First Congress” of the CCP, conservative CCP and able to become the party’s leader in internal struggles were Mao Zedong and Dong Biwu from the 1920s to the 1970s.
The two foreigners who participated in the “First National Congress” of the Chinese Communist Party did not end well. Nikolsky was shot by the Communist Party (Brazzaville), and Marin was shot by Nazi Germany.
Chen Duxiu is recognized as the founder and first general secretary of the CCP. He did not attend when the CCP was at the National Congress of the Communist Party of China. He only sent Bao Huiseng to represent him and was elected as secretary of the Central Bureau in absentia. In 1925, the Fourth Party Congress was elected as the first general secretary of the Communist Party of China, and he resigned in 1927. In November 1929, Chen Duxiu was expelled from the CCP because of his opposition to the CCP’s proposal to “defend the Soviet Union with arms.” Chen Duxiu died in Jiangjin, Sichuan in 1942.
Qu Qiubai, who had not participated in the “big”, was the main leader of the CCP after Chen Duxiu. In 1935, before the CCP fled northward, Qu Qiubai, who remained behind, was arrested by the National Government and wrote in prison before being executed. Superfluous Words”, frankly admitting that it is a “historical misunderstanding” to become the leader of the Chinese Communist Party. He said: “For seven or eight years, I have already felt extremely tired”, “I always wear a mask”, “Now I have lost the last mask.”
After Qu Qiubai’s death, he was labelled a “traitor” by the CCP, his wife died tragically, his children were imprisoned, and his parents’ graves were excavated.
After the establishment of the CCP, those generals who had fought for Mao Zedong were also miserably rectified. In particular, President Liu Shaoqi, who was once Mao’s successor, was dismissed from his post and expelled from the party, labelled as a traitor, traitor, and gangster. He was not on the list at the time of his death.
Lin Biao, Mao’s “legal” successor, fled with his wife Ye Qun, son Lin Liguo and others on September 13, 1971, and fell to his death in Windur Khan, Mongolia.
Deng Xiaoping took power after the Cultural Revolution. He first stepped down the successor Hua Guofeng, who was handed over by Mao, and then ousted his two CCP general secretary Hu Yaobang and Zhao Ziyang.
History will not lie. Taking an inventory of the different paths of the “big” representatives above and the fact that the veterans were overthrown after the establishment of the Communist Party of China, seem to indicate that after the collapse of the communist ideology, it only relies on the entanglement of interests without internal fighting. The ruling group that has stopped will also end up capsized and scattered at any time.
[One of the Centennial Series of the Chinese Communist Party]The birth of the party tied up with a rape and murder case