Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, October 12-Recently, the General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the General Office of the State Council issued the “Opinions on Promoting the High-quality Development of Modern Vocational Education” and issued a notice requesting all regions and departments to conscientiously implement them in light of actual conditions.
The main contents of the “Opinions on Promoting the High-Quality Development of Modern Vocational Education” are as follows.
Vocational education is an important part of the national education system and human resources development, and it shoulders the important responsibility of cultivating diverse talents, passing on technical skills, and promoting employment and entrepreneurship. In the new journey of building a socialist modern country in an all-round way, vocational education has a bright future and promising prospects. In order to implement the spirit of the National Vocational Education Conference and promote the high-quality development of modern vocational education, the following opinions are hereby put forward.
1. General requirements
(1) Guiding ideology. Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, thoroughly implement the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th Plenary Sessions of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China. People, optimize the type positioning, deepen the reform of education methods, school running models, management systems, and security mechanisms, effectively enhance the adaptability of vocational education, accelerate the construction of a modern vocational education system, build a skilled society, promote the spirit of craftsmanship, and cultivate more high-quality Technical and skilled talents, skilled craftsmen, and large-country craftsmen provide powerful talents and technical support for the comprehensive construction of a modern socialist country.
(2) Work requirements. Adhere to morality and cultivation of people, ethics and skills, and promote the integration and unification of ideological and political education and technical skills training; adhere to the integration of industry and education, school-enterprise cooperation, and promote the formation of a development pattern of benign interaction between industry and education, and school-enterprise complementary advantages; adhere to market-oriented, Promote employment, promote school layout, professional setting, talent training and market demand; insist on being practice-oriented and strengthening abilities, so that more young people can realize the value of life by virtue of their skills; insist on being oriented to everyone, teaching in accordance with their aptitude, and creating everyone’s efforts to become talents and everyone A good environment where everyone can become a talent and everyone can show their talents.
(3) Main objectives
By 2025, the types of vocational education will be more distinctive, the modern vocational education system will be basically completed, and the construction of a skilled society will be fully promoted. The school-running pattern has been more optimized, and the conditions for running a school have been greatly improved. The enrollment scale of vocational undergraduate education is not less than 10% of the enrollment scale of higher vocational education, and the attractiveness and quality of vocational education have been significantly improved.
By 2035, the overall level of vocational education will be among the best in the world, and a skilled society will be basically established. The social status of technical and skilled personnel has been greatly improved, and the supply of vocational education is highly matched with the needs of economic and social development, and the role of the comprehensive construction of a modern socialist country has been significantly enhanced.
2. Strengthen the characteristics of vocational education types
(4) Consolidate the positioning of vocational education types. Adjust measures to local conditions and coordinate the development of vocational education and general education. Speed up the establishment of the “vocational education and college entrance examination” system, improve the “cultural quality + vocational skills” examination enrollment method, strengthen provincial-level overall planning, and ensure fairness and justice. Strengthen the theoretical research of vocational education, and timely summarize the rules and system models of vocational education with Chinese characteristics.
(5) Promote the vertical integration of vocational education at different levels. Vigorously improve the quality of secondary vocational education, optimize the layout structure, implement the project to meet the standards of secondary vocational schools, adopt measures such as mergers, cooperation, trusteeship, and group operation to build a batch of excellent secondary vocational schools and high-quality majors, and focus on the delivery of higher vocational education Students with a solid foundation of technical skills and a qualified cultural foundation. Support qualified secondary vocational schools to pilot community colleges in accordance with the needs of local economic and social development. Promote the improvement of the quality of higher vocational education, implement the “Double High Plan”, and concentrate efforts to build a number of high-level higher vocational schools and majors. Steadily develop vocational undergraduate education, build vocational undergraduate schools and majors with high standards, and maintain the same direction, training mode, and characteristic development of vocational education. Integrate the design of the vocational education talent training system, promote the convergence of vocational education professional settings, training objectives, curriculum systems, and training programs at all levels, and support the implementation of long-term training in professional fields with long training cycles and high skills requirements. Encourage applied undergraduate schools to carry out vocational undergraduate education. In accordance with the principle of roughly matching majors, guide applied undergraduate schools and vocational undergraduate schools to attract more graduates from secondary and higher vocational schools to apply for the exam.
(6) Promote the horizontal integration of different types of education. Strengthen the penetration and integration of general education and vocational education in each school stage, implement vocational enlightenment education in ordinary primary and secondary schools, and cultivate the hobby of mastering skills and the awareness of career planning. Explore and develop characteristic comprehensive high schools that focus on training specialized skills. Promote the mutual selection and mutual recognition of credits between secondary vocational schools and ordinary high schools, higher vocational schools and applied universities. Encourage vocational schools to carry out subsidized training and market-oriented social training. Formulate a national qualifications framework, build a national credit bank for vocational education, realize the certification, accumulation and conversion of various learning achievements, and accelerate the construction of an education system that serves lifelong learning for all.
3. Improving the system for running schools by integrating production and education
(7) Optimize the supply structure of vocational education. Focusing on major national strategies, we will closely align with trends in industrial upgrading and technological change, prioritize the development of a number of emerging majors required by industries such as advanced manufacturing, new energy, new materials, modern agriculture, modern information technology, biotechnology, and artificial intelligence, and accelerate the construction of preschool, Nursing, health care, housekeeping, and other majors that are in short supply, transform and upgrade a number of traditional majors such as iron and steel metallurgy, chemical medicine, construction engineering, and textile manufacturing, and eliminate and eliminate majors with oversupply, low employment rates, and disappearance of professional jobs. Encourage schools to open more majors that are in short supply and meet market needs, and form a professional system that closely connects the industrial chain and innovation chain. Optimize the allocation of regional resources, promote the joint construction of vocational education innovation development highlands by ministries and provinces, and continue to deepen the cooperation between the east and the west of vocational education. Start the implementation of local pilot projects for the construction of a skill-based social vocational education system. Support the running of vocational education for rural areas, strengthen school-local cooperation, education and training, accelerate the training of talents for rural revitalization, and encourage more farmers and returning migrant workers to receive vocational education. Support industries and enterprises to carry out training and training of technical and skilled personnel, and implement a lifelong vocational skills training system and an on-the-job continuing education system.
(8) Improve the diversified school-running structure. Construct a diversified school-running pattern featuring overall government management, active holding by industry enterprises, and deep participation of social forces. Improve the systems of state-owned assets evaluation, property rights transfer, rights and interests distribution, and cadre and personnel management. Encourage listed companies and leading enterprises in the industry to hold vocational education, and encourage all kinds of enterprises to participate in the holding of vocational education in accordance with the law. Encourage vocational schools to cooperate with social capital to build vocational education infrastructure and training bases, and jointly build and share public training bases.
(9) Cooperate to promote the deep integration of production and education. Governments at all levels should coordinate the scale, structure, and level of vocational education and human resource development, and include the integration of production and education into the economic and social development plan. With cities as nodes, industries as fulcrums, and enterprises as the focus, we will build a batch of pilot cities for integration of industry and education, create a number of benchmark industries that lead the integration of industry and education, and cultivate a number of industry-leading enterprises that integrate industry and education. Actively cultivate a market-oriented, supply-demand matching, precise service, and standardized operation of industry-education integration service organizations. Compile and publish reports on the dynamic adjustment of the industrial structure, the employment status of industry talents, and the demand forecast report.
4. Innovate the school-enterprise cooperation mechanism for running schools
(10) Enrich the school-running form of vocational schools. Vocational schools should actively carry out bilateral and multilateral technical cooperation with high-quality enterprises, and jointly build technology and skill innovation platforms, specialized technology transfer institutions and university science parks, technology business incubators, and crowd-creation spaces to serve local small, medium and micro enterprises in technological upgrading and product research and development. Promote vocational schools to set up internship training bases in enterprises, and enterprises to build training and training bases in vocational schools. Promote school-enterprise co-building and co-management of industrial colleges and corporate colleges, and extend the space for vocational schools.
(11) Expand the form and content of school-enterprise cooperation. Vocational schools should take the initiative to attract leading companies in the industry to deeply participate in vocational education professional planning, curriculum design, teaching material development, teaching design, and teaching implementation, and cooperate to build new majors, develop new courses, and carry out order training. Encourage leading enterprises in the industry to lead the establishment of national and industry-based vocational education groups, and promote substantive operations. Explore the apprenticeship system with Chinese characteristics and vigorously cultivate technical and skilled personnel. Support enterprises to receive student internship training, and guide enterprises to set up apprenticeships based on a certain proportion of the total number of positions. It is strictly forbidden to charge students for internship training in violation of regulations.
(12) Optimize the policy environment for school-enterprise cooperation. All localities should promote the participation of enterprises in school-enterprise cooperation and the cultivation of technical and skilled personnel as an important part of the formulation of industrial development plans, industrial incentive policies, and rural revitalization plans, and provide “finance + finance + land + credit” combined incentives to enterprises that integrate production and education , Implement relevant tax and fee policies in accordance with regulations. The industry and information technology departments should take the participation of enterprises in school-enterprise cooperation as an important reference for the selection of various demonstration enterprises. Education, human resources and social security departments should regard the effectiveness of school-enterprise cooperation as an important part of evaluating the quality of vocational schools. State-owned assets supervision and management institutions should support enterprises to participate in and organize vocational education. Encourage financial institutions to provide relevant credit and financing support for school-enterprise cooperation in accordance with laws and regulations. Actively explore methods for vocational school interns to participate in work-related injury insurance. Accelerate the development of vocational school students’ internship training liability insurance and personal accident insurance, and encourage insurance companies to set special rates for modern apprenticeships and new enterprise apprenticeship insurance. The income of vocational schools through school-enterprise cooperation, technical services, social training, self-run enterprises, etc. can be used as a source of performance wages in a certain proportion.
5. Deepen the reform of education and teaching
(13) Strengthen the construction of double-qualified teachers. Strengthen the construction of teacher ethics and style, and comprehensively improve teacher quality. Improve the vocational education teacher qualification certification system, and strengthen professional teaching and practical requirements in the national teacher qualification examination. Formulate standards for dual-qualified teachers, improve teacher recruitment, professional and technical job evaluation and performance appraisal standards. Professional teachers shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of the student-teacher ratio and structure of vocational schools. Strengthen the construction of vocational and technical normal schools. Support high-level schools and large and medium-sized enterprises to jointly build a dual-qualified teacher training base, implement the regulations for teachers to practice regularly in enterprises, support enterprise technical backbones to teach in schools, promote the combination of fixed and mobile positions, and school-enterprise mutual employment part-time Reform of teacher team building. Continue to implement the plan to improve the quality of teachers in vocational colleges.
(14) Innovative teaching models and methods. Improve the quality and effectiveness of ideological and political theory courses, and promote Xi Jinping’s new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics into teaching materials, classrooms, and minds. To organize a teaching ability competition for teachers of ideological and political education courses in vocational schools. Project teaching, situational teaching, and modular teaching are generally carried out to promote the deep integration of modern information technology and education and teaching to improve the quality of classroom teaching. Fully implement flexible learning and credit system management, and support students to actively participate in social practice, innovation and entrepreneurship, and competition activities. Successfully run the National Vocational College Skills Competition.
(15) Improve teaching content and teaching materials. Improve the comprehensive education mechanism of “post-course competition certificate”, design and develop courses in accordance with the actual production and job requirements, develop a modular and systematic training course system, and enhance students’ practical ability. In-depth implementation of the vocational skill level certificate system, perfect certification management methods, and strengthen supervision during and after the event. Update teaching standards in time, and incorporate new technologies, new processes, new specifications, and typical production cases into the teaching content in a timely manner. Incorporate the advanced standards embodied in the vocational skill level certificate into the talent training plan. Strengthen the national powers of teaching materials construction, hierarchical planning, and improve the supervision mechanism for the compilation, review, selection, use, update, and evaluation of vocational education teaching materials. Guide localities, industries, and schools to build local characteristic textbooks, industry-applicable textbooks, and school-based professional textbooks in accordance with regulations.
(16) Improve the quality assurance system. Establish and improve national vocational education standards for teachers, courses, teaching materials, teaching, internship training, informatization, and safety, encourage local governments to introduce higher-requirement local standards based on actual conditions, and support industry organizations and leading enterprises to participate in the formulation of standards. Promote the construction of a diagnosis and improvement system for teaching work in vocational schools. Improve the supervision and evaluation methods of vocational education, strengthen the supervision of local governments in fulfilling vocational education responsibilities, and do a good job in the evaluation of the ability of secondary vocational schools to run schools and the evaluation of the ability of higher vocational schools to adapt to social needs. Improve the national, provincial, and school quality annual report system, regularly organize the review and spot check of the quality annual report, improve the level of compilation, and increase the degree of publicity. Strengthen the use of evaluation results and use them as an important reference for approving school settings, approving enrollment plans, and arranging major projects.
6. Build a vocational education brand with Chinese characteristics
(17) Improve the level of Sino-foreign cooperation in running schools. We will successfully run a batch of exemplary Sino-foreign cooperative education institutions and projects. Strengthen cooperation with international high-level vocational education institutions and organizations to carry out academic research, standard development, and personnel exchanges. Set up vocational education categories in the “Study in China” project and the Chinese government scholarship project.
(18) Expand the platform for Sino-foreign cooperation and exchange. Implement the 2025 strategy of the World Skills Organization in an all-round way, and strengthen cooperation with international and regional organizations such as UNESCO. Encourage open universities to build overseas study centers, promote the construction of vocational education foreign-related industry organizations, and implement overseas training programs for vocational school teachers’ teaching innovation teams, high-skilled leading talents, and industry-scarce talents. Actively host international vocational education conferences, successfully organize China-ASEAN Education Exchange Week, and form a group of brands for educational exchanges, skills exchanges and cultural exchanges.
(19) Promote vocational education to go global. Explore the international development model of “Chinese + vocational skills”. Serve international production capacity cooperation and promote vocational schools to follow Chinese companies to go global. Improve the construction standards of “Luban Workshop” and expand the connotation of running a school. Increase the proportion of vocational education in projects such as study abroad funds. Actively build a number of high-level international vocational schools, and launch a number of professional standards, curriculum standards, and teaching resources with international influence. All localities should incorporate vocational education into foreign cooperation plans as an important part of the construction of sister cities (provinces and prefectures).
Seven, organization and implementation
(20) Strengthen organization and leadership. Party committees and governments at all levels should put the promotion of high-quality development of modern vocational education in a more prominent position, and better support and help the development of vocational education. The joint meeting of the vocational education work departments must give full play to its role, and the education administrative department must earnestly implement the overall planning, comprehensive coordination, and macro-management responsibilities of the vocational education work. The state incorporates vocational education work into the supervision and evaluation of the provincial government’s fulfillment of educational responsibilities, and all provinces incorporate vocational education work into the assessment of local economic and social development. Select the key persons in charge of vocational schools and build a team of high-quality professional vocational education cadres. Implement the autonomy of vocational schools in terms of internal organization, job setting, employment plan, teacher recruitment, job title evaluation and so on. Strengthen the party building work of vocational schools, implement the ideological work responsibility system, carry out the demonstration and establishment of party organizations in vocational schools in the new era and quality excellence, and implement the party’s leadership in the whole process of running schools, running schools, and establishing morality.
(21) Strengthen system guarantees. Accelerate the revision of the Vocational Education Law, and local governments will formulate and revise relevant local regulations based on actual conditions. Improve the system of raising funds for vocational education through multiple channels through government investment. The expenditure structure was optimized, and the newly increased education funds were tilted toward vocational education. It is strictly forbidden to use tuition fees and social service income to offset the per-student appropriation, and explore the establishment of a differentiated per-student appropriation system based on major categories of vocational education.
(22) Optimize the development environment. Strengthen positive publicity, explore and publicize the typical deeds of grassroots and first-line technical and skilled talents growing and becoming talents, and promote the glorious work, precious skills, and create great fashion of the times. Open up the channels for vocational school graduates in terms of employment, settlement, participation in recruitment, title review, promotion, etc., and enjoy the same treatment as ordinary school graduates. Units and individuals who have made achievements in vocational education and technical and technical talents who have made outstanding contributions in the field of vocational education shall be commended and rewarded in accordance with relevant national regulations. All localities will include qualified high-level technical and technical talents into the high-level talent plan, explore mechanisms for cultivating and selecting cadres from outstanding industrial workers and agricultural and rural talents, increase the salary incentives for technical and skilled talents, and improve the social status of technical and skilled talents.