Home News The Red Chamber at Peking University·Characters | Li Dazhao: The “Fire Spreader” of Marxism_Mao Zedong

The Red Chamber at Peking University·Characters | Li Dazhao: The “Fire Spreader” of Marxism_Mao Zedong

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Original title: Peking University Red House·Character | Li Dazhao: “Fire Spreader” of Marxism

The Beijing News (Reporter Wu Wei) The blast of the October Revolution brought Marxism to China, and this “deliverer” was Li Dazhao. He studied in Japan in his early years and became a professor at Peking University when he returned to China. The Red House at Peking University was an important place for him to spread Marxism. From the establishment of the Communist Party group in Beijing in 1920 to the murder in April 1927 after being arrested, Li Dazhao fulfilled the mission of the times of “taking morality and justice with iron shoulders and writing articles with clever hands”.

In April 1920, Li Dazhao met with the representative of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks) Vikingsky at the Red House of Peking University, which promoted the process of party building.

Reform the Peking University Library and Abandon the Old-style Library

In the winter of 1917, Li Dazhao was hired as the director of the Peking University Library, and from January the following year he was appointed as the director of the library. At that time, the Peking University Library had fewer books, insufficient management and insufficient system. After he took office, he began to rectify, revise and improve library rules and regulations, and rectify all library work; adopt the policy of “compatible and mutual needs” collection construction, introduce a large number of advanced books and periodicals at home and abroad, and make the collection increasingly rich; lead the library to actively cooperate The school’s teaching reform has contributed to the teaching and academic development of Peking University.

In August 1918, the Red Building of the new Peking University campus was completed. In October of the same year, the Peking University Library was moved from the Ma Shenmiao Princess Mansion to the first floor of the newly built Red Building in the Han Garden.

The relocation work was presided over by Li Dazhao. He set up five reading rooms in the more spacious rooms in the Red Building, which can read Chinese and foreign magazines, newspapers, Chinese and Western books, etc., forming a new reader service system of Peking University Library.

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Under the leadership of Li Dazhao, the Peking University Library abandoned the old-style collection building and the “bookkeeper” style of library management, extended the opening time, tried open-shelf services, and carried out many proactive services based on the use of books. , And achieved good results.

Li Dazhao’s library director’s office is located in the southeast corner of the first floor of the Red Building. It has an elegant name of “no room for fullness”, which means “full of food all day long, no effort”. In fact, there is no difference between teachers and students in this place, and there is no politeness and etiquette. Restricted, everyone can debate ideological issues with each other. Luo Jialun recalled that in addition to the “air of academic freedom”, there was another benefit of being full. Because Li Dazhao was the director of the library, they could see first when new books in the library arrived, and these new books became materials for discussion. .

Organize the study of Marxism with the Red House as a position

In July 1918, Li Dazhao published “A Comparative View of the French and Russian Revolutions” on the third issue of the “Rules of Speech” quarterly. This was the first article in China that hailed the victory of the great October socialist revolution in Russia.

At this point, Li Dazhao began to transform from a democrat to a Marxist. He published a series of articles, systematically expounding his Marxist views, and paid attention to the combination of revolutionary theory and revolutionary practice, creating revolutionary groups and leading actual revolutionary struggles.

With the Red House as a position, Li Dazhao organized and led the progressive students of Peking University to carry out activities to study and promote Marxism.

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In March 1920, Li Dazhao secretly initiated the establishment of the Marxism Research Association at Peking University to organize the outstanding young people who had undergone the May Fourth Movement to further study, research and spread Marxism.

After Li Dazhao was hired as a professor at Peking University, he took the lead in offering courses on Marxist theory, such as the study of historical materialism, the history of socialism, socialism and social movements in all departments of the liberal arts of Peking University.

Li Dazhao once organized a two-day debate in the Red Mansion. The participants in the debate were all students and faculty members from universities and specialized schools in Beijing. There were many audiences and the classrooms were too crowded. Many people were still crowded outside the classrooms to listen. After the debate between the pros and cons was over, Li Dazhao, as a judge, used historical materialism to prove that the transition from a capitalist society to a socialist society is the law of the development of human society and is not controlled by human consciousness and feelings.

In October 1920, Li Dazhao established the “Communist Party Group”, an early organization of the Communist Party in Beijing, in the director’s office of the library, and served as the head of the group.

From introducing the revolutionary experience of the October Revolution, spreading Marxist ideas, to creating advanced organizations one after another, to the preparations for the First National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Li Dazhao played the role of pioneer and leader.

Speaking of people affected by Li Dazhao, Mao Zedong must be mentioned.

In the autumn of 1918, Mao Zedong came to Beijing and organized Xinmin Society members and Hunan students to go to France for work-study programs. According to Professor Yang Changji, Mao Zedong served as an assistant in the Peking University Library and also began his acquaintance with Li Dazhao.

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Working at Peking University under the baptism of the New Culture Movement provided Mao Zedong with a good learning environment. He participated in the club activities of the “Peking University Journalism Research Association” and the “Philosophy Research Association”. Mao Zedong, who worked in the library, was deeply influenced by the thought of Li Dazhao, the director of the library. From the end of the First World War to the May Fourth Movement, Li Dazhao published articles such as “The Victory of the Common People” and “My View on Marxism”, which provided valuable ideological guidance for the subsequent young Mao Zedong’s adherence to the Marxist line.

Mao Zedong later said with deep feelings when talking with Snow: When I was an assistant at the National Peking University Library under Li Dazhao, I developed rapidly in the direction of Marxism. Li Dazhao is my “real teacher”.


Li Dazhao (1889 ~ 1927), the word Shouchang, was born in Laoting, Hebei. The earliest Marxist in China and one of the main founders of the Communist Party of China. In 1920, he led the establishment of the early Communist Party organization in Beijing and the Beijing Socialist Youth League, and actively promoted the establishment of a nationwide Communist Party organization.


His lectures started from the scientific materialistic conception of history, were innovative in concept, accurate in content, and had a lot of space… Mr. Li’s lectures were systematic, organized, and highly persuasive, so the students were very active in attending the lectures, and there were no empty seats. —— Luo Zhanglong, “The Memoirs of Kang Zhai-Remembering the Days with Comrade Shouchang”

Beijing News reporter Wu Wei and intern Li Ziyi

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