This article introduces the StarkNet chain game ecosystem to readers. It is worth noting that unlike traditional GameFi, StarkNet’s chain game has a strong onchain feature. Therefore, this article will first introduce StarkNet and the whole chain concept, and then take stock of the StarkNet chain game infrastructure and eleven games that can represent the StarkNet whole chain concept.
Introduction to StarkNet
StarkNet is L2 compatible with Ethereum at the language level. StarkNet, as a member of ZKR in L2, far outperforms OPRs such as Optimism and Arbitrum in terms of tps and gas.
Source: Xiang｜W3.Hitchhiker, the above calculation premise is that the current ETH is 2500 U, the block gas limit is 30,000,000, the gas fee is 30 Gwei, and the average block time is 13 seconds. The limit TPS means that the corresponding operating environment occupies all the ether Square block space (500,000 gas is spent on proof verification), ordinary TPS means that the corresponding operating environment occupies 1/3 of the block space of all Ethereum
Among the many ZKRs, StarkNet is the “extremist” of zero-knowledge proof (ZKP). StarkNet has developed a virtual machine and Cairo language adapted to the validity proof, and based on the advanced STARK algorithm, it has realized the recursive feature, which can prove the proof. In short, the characteristic of StarkNet is that it has almost unlimited computing potential.
It should be noted that since the entire StarkNet network has not undergone the final state reset, when the next state reset is reached, the assets on the test network may be reset, and the deployed contracts also need to be changed. Currently on StarkNet Most of the applications are deployed on the testnet.
Full chain concept
The difference between full-chain games and GameFi
Before introducing the full-chain game, we need to explain the difference between the full-chain game and GameFi.
The fundamental difference between full-chain games and GameFi lies in the degree of decentralization, license-free, composability, and interoperability.
GameFi only tokenizes game props, the game assets are on the chain, and the calculation and storage part is on the off-chain centralized server, such as the well-known StepN, Axie Infinity, although they have achieved very good results, but the game’s The gameplay and content are limited, and affected by the centralized operation of the project party, the project party can change the rules of the game. GameFi also does not support UCG – players and developers cannot create in-game content and assets license-free, and other on-chain applications are difficult to interoperate with.
A full-chain game is not only about putting game assets on the chain, but the entire game also exists in the network in the form of a contract. The state storage and logic execution of the game are also completely on the chain, which is in line with the decentralization and license-free nature of the blockchain. , Composable basic properties. This means that no entity can unilaterally change the rules of the game, the initiative of the game is in the hands of the players, and the concept of “official” games will gradually disappear.
What’s more valuable is that players and developers can customize the front end based on open source code, recreate in-game facilities and assets under the constraints of basic rules, and unlock the possibility of UCG-user-created content. Moreover, any DApp that conforms to the rules of the full-chain game contract can interoperate with it without permission, which will expand the composability of the full-chain game to a larger ecological scope. With DeFi, NFT and any dApp that may emerge in the future, it can interoperate with full-chain games, which will break the business pattern of Web2’s monopoly as the business model, and give developers and users a more perfect application experience and more imaginative Create opportunities.
Full chain requirements
However, full-chain games have very high requirements on network performance. In simple terms, network performance is required to have the characteristics of high TPS and low gas.
Compared with any other monolithic performance chain, StarkNet supports developers to customize zero-knowledge proof circuits for applications in terms of technology, can generate proofs for games separately, and can build a special L3 game application chain in L2; plus the STARK system has recursion The feature of validity proof has an almost infinite performance upper limit, which can greatly meet the performance requirements of full-chain games. Not long ago, the founder of StarkNet announced at the Ethereum Seoul conference that StarkNet’s core algorithm STARK can package 60 million transactions into a single summary and upload to the main network, ranking first among all blockchain networks.
As an Ethereum L2, StarkNet can more cheaply and safely undertake Ethereum users, assets, code, and developers than other public chains. Therefore, compared to other high-performance public chains, StarkNet is undoubtedly better able to meet the performance requirements of full-chain games.
Chain Game Infrastructure
MatchBoxDAO Chain Game Incubation DAO
MatchBoxDAO is an ecosystem DAO composed of developers, artists and designers dedicated to promoting the development of StarkNet ecological chain games and related infrastructure and tools.
MatchboxDAO supports developers building development tools, infrastructure, and building blocks for on-chain games. Each basic component is open source and can be used and reused by new developers who enter the DAO, which will not only save developers a lot of work, improve the development efficiency of full-chain games, but also enable multiple full-chain games to play at low cost. methods share a common technical framework to lay the foundation for composability and interoperability.
MatchBoxDAO includes Matchbox Spark and Matchbox Studios two products.
Matchbox Spark is a game incubator on StarkNet that helps developers handle legal, financing, marketing, token economics, community and company strategy, and MatchBox will take a partial stake in the company.
Matchbox Studios is a suite of development tools used to accelerate game development on StarkNet. The recent development of MatchBox is to promote the development of session keys (passwordless payments for Web3).
On August 18, 2022, MatchBox completed a $7.5 million financing round led by StarkNet development team StarkWare, with participation from Big Brain Holdings, Geometry Research, 1kx, Delphi Ventures and other institutions.
Funding was used to develop Matchbox Spark and Matchbox Studios.
MatchBox hosted a hackathon in the first half of 2022, with 78 teams participating, and announced the winners on July 23, 2022. The winners include Tic Tac AI, Starknet ID, Axelrod, and incubate a large number of StarkNet applications, such as Frenslend, StarkWorld, etc.
On September 8th, Matchbox teamed up with StarkWare and LootRealms to host the second hackathon, which lasted from September 28th to October 9th.
The goal of the second hackathon is to help developers develop full-chain games on StarkNet and the components, tools, basic components or any other infrastructure of full-chain games, which can be used by other full-chain games.
This hackathon includes four tracks, namely Realms games, Realms tools, full-chain games, and full-chain game components, tools, basic components (a basic component of an ecosystem, application, or the smallest unit) or other infrastructure. .
Cartridge.gg Chain Game Steam
Cartridge is a chain game integration platform on StarkNet, similar to Steam in Web2. On the one hand, it can help users browse and launch selected encrypted chain games, help users get rewards from tasks, upgrade avatars, and interact with friends in the community. Aspects can help ChainGames push to users faster.
On the other hand, as a chain game infrastructure, Cartridge can also combine with encrypted wallets to provide players with a richer on-chain experience. DIDs, communities, game item markets, and financial markets can also be implemented in Cartridge, connecting the composability advantages of crypto games beyond the game.
Currently in the development stage, integrating with popular StarkNet projects such as Briq, LootRealms, Topology, MatchBox, etc.
briq NFT development protocol
Briq is a block-based construction protocol that allows anyone to create their own NFTs on Starknet. The goal is to assemble blocks (briqs) to create a structure (collection) and store them on-chain in the form of NFTs, like Minecraft and Roblox based on blockchains and NFTs.
Users will collect blocks to make structures. But also dismantle existing structures to recycle blocks and use them to build new structures. It is also possible to combine NFTs with each other to make more complex structures. The only limit is the user’s imagination and the number of briqs in their wallet. In short, blocks and buildings are infinitely modular.
In terms of application, it allows users to visually build NFTs with a block as the smallest element, and at the same time has the characteristics of composability and interoperability – on the one hand, briq can be combined to create NFTs called collectibles, and they can be arbitrarily re-created again. Combining or splitting original NFTs into brand new NFTs, users can recreate NFTs based on existing NFTs just like the real thing.
On the other hand, briq NFT can be used in any game, you may be able to turn it into an avatar of a plane or an on-chain identity in a full-chain game, it has infinite interoperability.
At present, many users have created rich birq NFTs, although most of them have obvious pixel wind, but it is worth looking forward to, with the increase of the number of editables, maybe the pictures of birq NFTs can look more and more realistic—— Like a high-definition screen with hundreds of thousands of pixels.
NFT Marketplace: Aspect and Mint Square
Aspect is an NFT marketplace on StarkNet.
The mainnet launch is planned for Q4, but Aspect is currently on the testnet, the NFT contract standard is still under development, and all nfts minted on Aspect will be deleted during network or contract upgrades.
Users can try to transfer Ethereum to L2 via StarkGate to mint NFTs on Aspect.
Like Aspect, Mint Square is also an NFT market on StarkNet, and there is no obvious difference in function and positioning.
The same basic buy, sell, mint and list items as Aspect.
Physical simulation of the Isaac three-body theme
Isaac is StarkNet’s first full-chain game. It is a multiplayer online physics simulation game based on the novel “Three-Body Problem”.
The world setting is similar to The Three-Body Problem and The Wandering Earth, with all players forming a civilization living on an endangered planet called Ev, located in a solar system with three suns: Byk, Orta, and Balaca. The planet could easily hit the sun, and civilization was destroyed on the sun. Players must cooperate to build factories, pipelines and power grids, convert natural resources into various devices, and push the planets to change their orbits to avoid hitting the sun, just like The Wandering Earth.
The team behind Topology has its own game design philosophy, mainly including deep on-chain, inclusive, infinite expansion, and non-simulation, which will be briefly introduced below.
At present, most video games cut corners in their code to optimize reliability under performance constraints (such as frame rate). Different, full-chain games strive for true depth, so that performance has nothing to do with its essence, and strives to develop a performance that is not limited by performance. game. Being deep on-chain also means that developers can choose to be an equal participant in smart contract deployments, rather than using their exclusive access to backdoors to make great products mediocre like the god-like developers in Web2.
On-chain reality should be built around the idea of multi-entry and inclusiveness. First-person shooters target the player’s hand-eye coordination and quick tactical thinking. DeFi “games” target players’ quantitative and game-thinking skills. These talents represent a small fraction of the vast majority of human talent and curiosity. Onchain realities strives to provide a space for creative expression for many talents.
The on-chain reality is not only about making a specific game, but also creating a space for everyone to express, building a “game universe” that can accommodate all games and improve a seamless experience bridge for different games. Imagine that the hit or not of League of Legends’ non-pointing skills depends on your accuracy in hitting the target in FPS mode in the game, just like in World of Warcraft, all kinds of players can find their own fun in the world (if World of Warcraft is in On-chain operation may not slowly lose vitality).
Extension without permission
Onchain Realities is committed to the permissionless extension of the game boundary, any programmer can participate in the development of the game without permission at the bare metal level (i.e. smart contract), and modify the game content and mechanics within the limits of the basic rules, and These realities are enriched by flexible tools and interfaces for architects, sound designers, environment designers, fashion designers, screenwriters, and more.
CarseDAO Game DAO Contract Standard
CarseDAO aims to become the standard for game voting (P2V), which Isaac’s team, Topology, believes will redefine open game development. The CarseDAO standard is a DAO contract standard that formulates a basic mechanism for a full-chain game to implement the governance process through contracts.
The CarseDAO standard hopes to determine the governance mechanism of DAOs through pure on-chain, immutable contracts. In addition, unlike many current DAOs that are governed by tokens, CarseDAO’s voting is only done through games or in-game feedback. Players’ votes in CarseDAO come directly and only from game participation, and the contract automatically gives game players the right to vote through parameters. Therefore, users must participate in the game if they want to participate in the game decision-making voting.
DAOs and Governance
IsaacDAO is Isaac’s DAO, and its design philosophy includes the following four points:
Follow the CarseDAO standard, strive for simplicity and completeness, explore quadratic voting, and embrace full forkability.
It is currently in the Open Alpha testing stage, testing the core game mechanics and preparing for open and decentralized development. Ordinary users have a certain threshold for participation, and the official tutorial for developers to participate.
S2M2 solvers and invited collaborators can participate in playtests; all users can observe and reproduce civilizations.
It is worth noting that the team Topology has promoted the concept of full-chain games at StarkNet related conferences many times, and related videos can be found on YouTube.
It is also the technical community of StarkNet, and many of StarkNet’s public classes are published through its YouTube channel.
GoL2 On-chain Game of Life
GoL2 is Game of Life on StarkNet. About the Game of Life, also known as Conway’s Game of Life, or Conway’s Game of Life, is a cellular automaton invented by British mathematician John Horton Conway in 1970. It was originally developed in 1970 Appeared in Martin Gordon’s “Math Games” column in Scientific American in October 2009.
Regarding the rules of the game, cells arranged in a square grid are either alive or dead. A live cell with 2 or 3 live neighbors can survive; a dead cell with 3 live neighbors can be resurrected; otherwise the cell dies.
How the game progresses depends on the player’s initial state settings, and the game requires no further input. As you can see, the evolution of the Game of Life is unpredictable – just like life. Players can interact with Game of Life by creating an initial configuration and watching how it evolves, it is Turing complete and can simulate a generic constructor or any other Turing machine, which also means that contracts on StarkNet can interoperate with it.
From a gaming perspective, GoL2 doesn’t seem to make any sense, but since it’s not hardcoded, plus the results are unpredictable, it can theoretically do anything. It can be combined with AIGC (Artificial Intelligence Generated Content) technology and integrated into other full-chain games on StarkNet. All the content we touch in the game can undergo endless evolution. For example, we can experience endless evolution in StarkNet. The endless and ever-changing universe of planets, alien creatures, mineral resources, and natural vegetation will bring revolutionary breakthroughs to the experience of the entire chain of games.
At present, GoL2 is a single-currency model, and the Token name is GOL.
In the process of participating in the game, players get Tokens with the evolution of cells. Players can use 10 Tokens to create their own games in creative mode, or spend 1 Token in endless mode to give life to cells. Every time a player completes an evolution in infinite mode, a unique snapshot is generated, and ownership of that snapshot is assigned to the wallet.
The game is currently under development, and GOL Token will also be launched with the game’s announcement. At present, the team has not announced a clear future plan.
LootRealms MMOCCG massively multiplayer on-chain composable game on-chain
Loot Realms is a massively multiplayer, on-chain composable strategy game ecosystem. In the first version, players need to hold Realms NFT to start the game. In the second version, they can participate in the game by casting Adventurers. It is worth adding that the equipment of the adventurer is the Loot of the previous fire.
Its inspiration comes from Loot, and the gameplay is similar to Web2’s military sandbox games such as EVE, the land of the land and so on. The LootRealms game world consists of 8000 Realms. A Realms is a territory. A territory has a maximum of 7 resource attributes, a total of 22 types. Players not only need to build a sustainable economic system to produce resources, but also build military forces to protect and compete for resources.
Each country produces 250 resources per day, which are used to build buildings, build armies (to protect the country/attack other countries to snatch resources), conduct trade activities, etc. All resources can be paired with $LORDS on AMM. The things that can be built in the kingdom are limited, so this game requires a higher strategic thinking of players and has a strong gameplay.
It is worth adding that the DAO of Loot Realms is BibliothecaDAO, and BibliothecaDAO is also a development DAO dedicated to building on-chain games. Holding Realms NFT can participate in governance, and governance tokens will be issued in the future.
The largest portion of $LORDS will be released through game emissions. These emissions will follow a supply curve that depends on the actions in the game. It will be issued at a sustained pace to balance inflation with growth, with total issuance expected to take at least seven years.
The distribution plan for the Journey Contract portion is to distribute 10% of $LORDS to early Realms holders who choose to stake. Allocations of this size will not happen again.
Nexus Trading Machine
All transactions in the Realmverse flow through a networked machine called the Nexus, and players provide $LORDS as the fuel to run the Nexus.
All in-game transactions incur a fee (provided to Nexus). These fees are currently set at the following percentages,
As with most decentralized protocols, holders can change these fees through governance voting.
There are two pledge methods
The first is to pledge LORDS to Nexus, and the second is to pledge the trading pair of 22 resources (any one) and $LORDS, both of which will be rewarded with LORDS Token. The latter pledge method is actually to decentralize the resource trading market of common war sandbox games on the Web.
In addition to purchasing through the trading platform, currently, before the game goes live, you can get the output of $LORDS by staking Realms NFT.
Imperium Wars Sandbox Strategy
Imperium Wars is a sandbox strategy game that integrates card, diplomacy, military, and economic elements. It can be compared to the war sandbox games in the Web2 mobile game, such as the Shore of the Land and the Three Kingdoms Strategy Edition.
The background of the game is that five countries fight against each other, and the last two countries win. Soldiers exist in the form of NFT cards. Countries are composed of soldiers. Soldiers have five ranks: marshal, commander, artillery, cavalry and infantry. The marshals and commanders will be represented by historical figures. It takes a soldier to join a country in battle.
Each season starts a new war, and at the end of the season, each empire will be scored based on the number of territories they have conquered. Warriors of a victorious empire will earn war loot and royalties in ETH, the map is reinitialized and the rules can be changed. Other empires will be scored based on the number of territories they conquer.
The Imperium Wars team has some thoughts on blockchain games. Most of their P2E token economies are unsustainable, and game developers should focus on game development rather than complex cryptoeconomics and DeFi protocols. If the game is fun and popular, many players will initiate a natural and high volume of transactions, and the royalty income from their NFT collection will be substantial and sustainable.
Imperium’s first card has an 8% royalty, 4% will be used for loot and redistributed to the community, and the other 4% will go to Imperium development.
The game is currently in the development stage.
A recent tweet mentioned StarkNet id, Imperium Wars and Eykar jointly developed StarkNet id, here is a tutorial for Starknet id.
The white paper was launched on September 3.
Redline Robot Racing’s 3A masterpiece
Redline is an in-depth strategy and story game based on the UE5 model that integrates robotics, racing, and engineering elements, and is dedicated to elevating the game to the next level through fully on-chain game logic, fun, and 3A graphics technology. The participating robots are NFTs, which can be purchased on StarkNet’s NFT marketplaces such as Aspect and MintSquare, but the official tweeted on September 4 that users may get better NFTs for completing community tasks. The game is currently in beta.
Alpha testing kicked off in August, with an open match every five minutes or so, one qualifier per day, and one tournament per week for six days, with three matches on the final day to determine the winner.
Eykar War Sand Table
Eykar is a war sandbox game that combines elements of multiplayer online and role-playing, similar to Imperium. Open source smart contracts determine the rules of the world: how fast time flies, how you act, how you build an army, etc.
Players need to pay around $10 in Ethereum to get their first land and choose a faction. Based on the land, players can start recruiting people, exploring and conquering territories. As players continue to expand, they will eventually encounter other kingdoms, who may become allies or start a war. Players will perform different actions depending on the faction to gain prestige.
Prestige will play a very important role as it will decide which player or guild will win the match at the end of the season and keep half of the money generated by the match.
Eykar is currently in the development stage. Players can complete tasks, but cannot experience the game. As of September 13, the official has not given a clear plan.
NoGame Space MMORPG
NoGame is a space-themed MMORPG, the planets are NFTs, and the resources are ERC20 Tokens.
At present, the gameplay is limited to static simulation operations. Players need to accumulate resources and upgrade various facilities by consuming resources to obtain greater resource output.
Currently in the testing phase, users can enter the game interaction
Log in to the website, connect to the wallet, and click Create planet below
Then the following screen appears, and players can try to achieve different resource output combinations through different upgrade routes.
Massively Multiplayer Online Game of Influence Space Strategy
Influence is a space strategy sandbox MMO set in the Adalia system’s asteroid belt. Adalia is humanity’s new home after an unfortunate journey aboard the Arvad, a multi-generational ship escaping a dying Earth.
The first version of the game, titled “Exploitation”, focused on the foundations of the emerging Adalian economy. Players will begin to expand their influence by controlling valuable resources and supply chains to produce goods and provide services. Players will need to maintain a careful balance of resources to build infrastructure and continue to be competitive within the Adaliya asteroid belt. Focusing on specialization and maximizing efficiency in a changing environment will be some of the keys to success.
To play the game, you need to hold the crew NFT (the price of buying ordinary crew members in Influence is less than 10U). The crew members are divided into drivers, merchants, engineers, miners and scientists according to their occupations. Each player can use up to 5 crew members at the same time, and the occupation is not limited. . Players need to compete with other players through a variety of means: mining, construction, trade, research and combat. Colonize asteroids and exploit their resources, build infrastructure, discover technology, and engage in combat. Expand your influence on the belt, either solo or cooperatively with other players.
At present, three game analysis tools have been developed, namely Elerium, Tyrell Yutani, and Strwrsfrk. The following figure is an example of the Tyrell Yutani dashboard.
Currently, the second phase of the Influence testnet is underway, and players can learn how to play in the game step by step through tutorials. The game is continuing to be actively developed, and the current release date has not yet been finalized.
The project party stated that when SWAY Token is issued, 1% (1.5 billion SWAY) will be used to reward testnet participants. It is worth noting that the project team releases 500 asteroids in Discord every week.
Dope Wars Metaspace
It is a DAO-managed game and a HipHop-style P2E metaverse project. The main features are open source, community-driven and fully decentralized.
Its core mechanism is mainly composed of four tokens:
Hustler: The character NFT exists on the blockchain to suit the specifications of the entire chain. The owner can customize its appearance through Swap Meet (the in-game trading market), and can equip Gear;
Dope NFT: An ERC-721 NFT based on Loot, similar to an equipment package, with three types of information: attributes, rarity, and mounts written. Its utility includes creating Hustler, obtaining $PAPER, voting on DAO proposals, and undetermined content such as airdrops and staking;
$PAPER: In-game currency, ERC-20 specification, the current provisional total supply is 1 billion PAPER, holding one Dope NFT can receive 12.5w;
Gear: ERC-1155 specification NFT opened from Dope NFT, stored on Optimism, one Dope NFT can open nine Gears, and each Gear can be traded separately in the in-game market
Dope Wars plans to implement $TURF, which is related to the subsequent land trading system: STREETCRED Token obtained by pledge Dope NFT and $PAPER can be used to purchase $TURF
Mugshots implementation (Hustlers snapshot, created on Ethereum mainnet with ERC-721)
Hustlers, Gear launched (Q4 2021)
Dope NFT, $PAPER launched (Q3 2021)
The above-mentioned full-chain games have relatively strong simulation management characteristics. In addition, StarkNet also has three social and metaverse games, which are Frenslands, Altzone, and Phi.
Frenslands is Starknet’s decentralized real-time strategy game, where players can harvest resources and build their dream community, incubated by StarkNet game incubator MatchboxDAO.
Altzone Metaverse Like Cryptosvoxels
Altzone is the first metaverse game on StarkNet, similar to Cryptovoxels on Ethereum.
The beta test is currently closed, and the loading time is very long, about 3-6 minutes. Just follow the instructions to connect to the wallet. At present, the official has not given too many game guidelines, but some group activities will be held in the game, which is worthy of continuous attention.
Phi On-Chain Metaverse
Phi is a metaverse project built on the ENS domain and on-chain activities, refer to Decentraland, Cryptovoxels, Sandbox on Ethereum. Phi’s mission is to visualize on-chain identity and create an open and inclusive metaverse terrestrial system based on on-chain information (ENS, on-chain activity).
The difference between Phi and other metaverse projects is that in games such as Sandbox and Decentraland, small players cannot create or participate, which makes the “metaverse” a small place that is not scalable or inclusive; The chain property makes it infinitely expandable. Whereas Phi hopes that everyone with ENS or some kind of on-chain activity should be granted virtual land and be able to build on it, populating them with objects representing on-chain activity (e.g. achievements, status, community).
Phi is integrating many well-known Crypto projects into it, such as Uniswap as shown below.
As the leader of zkVM, StarkNet’s high-performance technical features lay the foundation for the development of on-chain full-chain games. Full-chain games are different from GameFi, which only puts assets on the chain. The full-chain game state storage and logic execution are completely on the chain. It has the advantages of decentralization, license-free, composability, and interoperability. This not only means that the game is “official” “The concept will gradually disappear, and it will enable full-chain games, DeFi, NFT, and any DApp that may emerge in the future to interoperate with full-chain games, allowing users to have a richer and more customized product experience. , more entrepreneurial opportunities for developers.
In terms of infrastructure, projects such as MatchBox, Cartridge, Briq, Aspect, and Mint Squeare have prepared trading markets and application stores for StarkNet players, as well as a wealth of development tools for StarkNet full-chain game developers.
In terms of full-chain games, existing full-chain games such as Isaac, Lootrealms, Influence, and Imperium War have been continuously optimized and new gameplays have been developed. With the continuous optimization of infrastructure, more and more new full-chain games emerge, which will bring more and more rich gaming experience to players on StarkNet.
If we turn our attention from the full-chain game on StarkNet to the traditional game industry, we will find that it is almost impossible for traditional game companies to accept permissionless participation, programmability, composability, and token asset innovation. But this is the opportunity for full-chain gaming on StarkNet. The full-chain game can also be called DeGame to a certain extent. It will definitely change the game industry, break the existing industrial relationship, business logic, and upgrade the development model and user experience – just as DeFi has changed the financial industry.
We need to reimagine the future of gaming.