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Composition material | Achievement material of 2022 Nobel Prize winners_Bank_France_Research

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Composition material | Achievement material of 2022 Nobel Prize winners_Bank_France_Research

Today, I will take stock of this year’s Nobel Prize for everyone~ High school students can use it as a reserve for composition materials~

Ben S. Bernanke

Douglas W. Diamond

Philip H. Dybvig

(Three winners) have greatly improved our understanding of the role banks play in the economy, especially during the financial crisis. A key finding in their research is why avoiding bank failures is critical (for the economy).

Ben Bernanke is an American Jewish economist who taught at Princeton University for 17 years and is now a fellow at the Brookings Institution. In 2005, he was named Fed chairman, succeeding Greenspan. Bernanke, who analyzed the Great Depression of the 1930s, believed that bank runs were a decisive factor in making economic crises severe and protracted.

Douglas Diamond teaches at the University of Chicago and is currently the Merton H. Miller Professor at the Booth School of Business, specializing in financial institutions, financial crises, and liquidity. Philip Diebwig is a professor of banking and finance at Washington University in St. Louis, where he focuses on banking, asset pricing, investing, and corporate governance.

Diamond and Dibvig jointly proposed the Diamond-Dybvig Model on bank runs. A crisis in the banking system occurs when bank deposits are not insured, triggering a run on the bank.



Literary Award

unnamed autobiography

Annie Ernaux

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award speech

With courage and keen insight, she uncovers the roots, silos, and collective limitations of personal memory.

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Anne Ernault (1940-) is a famous contemporary French writer. She was born in Lille Bonne-sur-Mer, France, and spent her childhood in Ivoto, a small town in Normandy.

She first taught in secondary schools, then worked at the French Distance Education Center, and continued to write after her retirement.

Ernault started writing in 1974 and has published about fifteen works so far. Works such as “Location” and “A Woman” vividly depict the struggle process full of loss, despair, hope and dream of how parents who were born in poverty have to free themselves and the next generation from the lowest social status It accurately and objectively reproduces the huge differences in psychology, living habits, hobbies and other values ​​of people from different social classes in contemporary France. At the same time, it also expresses the love and hate for parents and hometown with extremely painful and contradictory feelings. .

Her representative work “Long Time” has been published by the People’s Literature Publishing House. This masterpiece, which has been considered and scrutinized for more than 20 years, makes her well-deserved among the top contemporary French writers.

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Once published, “Long Time” won the “Duras Literary Award” in France that year. It uses ” unnamed autobiographyThe way of ” is actually to remind others to recall while also recalling, reflecting the evolution of the times with people’s shared experiences, thereby arousing strong resonance in people’s hearts, reflecting the progress of the world through personal experiences, and actually writing collective memory.

The time span of the novel is sixty years, so readers of all ages can find familiar content and clear memories.



“To Chinese Readers”

Anne Ernault

In the spring of 2000, I came to China for the first time, first in Beijing and then in Shanghai. I was invited to talk about my own writing at some universities. Your country, China, the place I dreamed of so many times as a child, where I imagined wandering among women with their feet wrapped tightly in little shoes and men with a big braid on their backs . At night, I often thought I saw the Great Wall in the clouds reddened by the setting sun. Later, with a few Frenchmen in the sixties, I often “think” of it in an abstract, unpictorial way as a political system that rules over a billion indiscriminate people. Of course, in the last ten years, some films, documentaries, books have changed my simplistic views, but it was only when I arrived in Beijing this May morning that this kind of ideological prejudice and fabricated, fictional descriptions The blurred clump that formed it vanished.

I roamed the hustle and bustle of streets and construction sites, the serenity of secluded alleys and parks. I breathe the air of a bungalow next to the latest high-rise. I watched groups of schoolchildren, bikers obscured by cargo, brides taking pictures in Western-style wedding dresses. I thought “our languages, our histories are different, but we are in the same world” with a feeling of closeness. Everything I saw, workers bumping in the back of trucks, some walking in the park—often made up of a grandmother, parents, and an only child—family, and what I was writing at the time, you have in hand This book resonated with me. In addition to all the differences in the characteristics and history of the Chinese and French people, I seem to have discovered something in common. When passing by some men and women on the street, I often ask myself what their life journey was like, what kind of memories they have of childhood and previous periods. I would love to be in touch with the memory of China, not in the writings of all historians, but real and indeterminate, both unique to each and shared with all, of the times he lived through trace.

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My greatest hope is that my novel “Long Time”—translated into your language fills me with joy—to bring you, Chinese friends, into contact with a kind of French memory. The memories of a French woman, familiar to her contemporaries, from the Second World War to the present day, have more ways of life, beliefs and values ​​than their centuries-old ancestors. much turmoil. A memory that constantly presents all events, songs, objects, social slogans, collective fears and hopes. It also outlines the social process and the inner process of a life based on the gaze of photographs taken at various ages, from childhood to old age.

In immersing you in these years that you have also lived through—perhaps not the same—may you feel that we are all in the same world, and that time is equally mercilessly passing.



Physics Prize

Prove Einstein wrong

Alain Aspe(Alain Aspect)

John Francis Krause

(John Francis Clauser)

Anton Salinger(Anton Zeilinger

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Physics Prize

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded to Alain Aspe (France), Johann Krause (USA) and Anton Salinger (Austria).

Through photon entanglement experiments, they determined that Bell’s inequality does not hold in the quantum world, and created the discipline of quantum information. Their experiments ended Einstein and the founder of the old quantum theory, Danish physicist Niels Bohr continued. Controversy for nearly a century.

The Nobel Prize Committee stated in its official introduction that quantum mechanics now has a wide range of research fields, including quantum computers, quantum networks and secure quantum encrypted communication. Anders Irbäck, Chairman of the Nobel Committee for Physics, said: “It is becoming increasingly evident that a new quantum technology is emerging. We can see that the research of entangled states by the laureates is very important, even going beyond the fundamentals of explaining quantum mechanics. question.”

Their findings clear the way for new technologies based on quantum information, setting the stage for a new era of quantum technology.

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Physiology or Medicine Award

Why are humans unique?

Swante Pabo(Svante Pääbo)

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Physiology or Medicine Award

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to Swedish paleogeneticist Svante Pabo for his work in Human evolution and the study of the extinct human genomecontribution made.

Pabo’s pioneering research accomplished the seemingly impossible: sequencing the genome of the extinct Neanderthal. He also discovered a previously unknown hominid: the Denisova. Importantly, Pabo also found that genes were transferred from these now-extinct hominids to Homo sapiens after humans left Africa about 70,000 years ago. This ancient gene flow is still biologically relevant to humans today, for example by affecting our immune system’s response to infection.

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Pabo’s pioneering research spawned a whole new scientific discipline: paleogenomics(paleogenomics). His research provides a basis for exploring what makes us uniquely human by uncovering the genetic differences between all living humans and extinct hominids.

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Chemistry Prize

Improving the targeting of cancer drugs

Caroline R. Bertozzi

(Carolyn R. Bertozzi)

Morton P. Meldal

(Morten P. Meldal)

K. Barry Sharpless

(K. Barry Sharpless)

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Chemistry Prize

The 2022 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded to Caroline R. Bertozzi (United States), Morton P. Meldal (Denmark) and K. Barry Sharpless (United States) for their development of click chemistry and biology Awarded for Orthogonal Chemistry.

It is noteworthy that, Caroline R. Bertozzi becomes the eighth woman in the history of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, and K. Barry Sharpless becomes the fifth two-time Nobel Laureate – who was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2001. Awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

According to Li Zhen, a professor at the School of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences of Wuhan University, the research of click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry has actually been applied to our daily life, including the construction of optoelectronic functional molecular materials, the research and development of new drugs, etc. Because of its simple and efficient characteristics, it greatly reduces the cost and improves the development speed. Awards in this field can further enhance people’s understanding and awareness of it, helping to promote its continued development.

The Nobel Committee said in a statement that click chemistry and bioorthogonal chemistry techniques are now being used worldwide to explore the tracking of cellular and biological reaction processes. “By using bioorthogonal reactions, researchers have improved the targeting of cancer drugs, which are currently being tested in clinical trials,” the Nobel Committee said in the release.

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related information:

  • Composition materials | Advanced vocabulary, sentence patterns and paragraphs in “People’s Daily”

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