author:Zhang Dayu(President of Beijing Jianzhu University, Special Researcher of Beijing Xi Jinping Research Center for Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era)
The protection of cultural relics has a long way to go. Improving the disaster prevention, mitigation and relief capabilities of historical and cultural cities, towns, and villages is the proper meaning of the overall planning of cultural relics protection and economic and social development. At present, it is urgent to comprehensively use civil defense, physical defense, technical defense and other means to mobilize social forces to participate in a way that conforms to the national conditions for the protection and utilization of cultural relics.
Incorporate disaster prevention and mitigation of cultural relics into national and local emergency management systems. Although the cultural relics disaster prevention and mitigation work is dominated by the cultural relics department, it is a major social emergency during the occurrence of a disaster and during emergency rescues after a disaster. It should be organized and implemented in accordance with the national emergency management system, and related departments should be mobilized to participate and quickly coordinate. At the same time, it is necessary to give full play to the enthusiasm of the residents where the cultural relics are located and organize more social forces to participate.
Formulate and improve the emergency response plan for disaster prevention and mitigation of cultural relics. Continuously improve a series of emergency response procedures and measures such as monitoring and early warning of cultural relics disasters and dangers, risk assessment and judgment, disaster prevention, disaster handling, information reporting, and post-disaster repairs and repairs, and carry out emergency training and drills to effectively enhance the ability of cultural relics to handle emergency response. For cultural relics with outstanding disaster risks and areas prone to disasters, risk management plans should also be drawn up as soon as possible.
Strengthen the daily monitoring of cultural relics and establish an early warning mechanism. Do a good job in daily maintenance of cultural relics and regular inspections to find problems as soon as possible. Support the parts with structural safety hazards, regularly remove the blockage of gutters and drainage pipe holes, etc.; regularly dredge the drainage system within a certain area around the ancient building, and regularly check and maintain the structural system. It is necessary to predict deployment in advance, strengthen early warning and forecast, and eliminate potential safety hazards.
Do a good job in the rescue and repair of damaged cultural relics after the disaster. The cultural preservation unit shall collect and preserve the damaged cultural relics components or parts, carry out the risk assessment of cultural relics disasters, and do a good job of rescue and repair accounts. On the premise of not changing the original state of the cultural relics, and not affecting the safety of the cultural relics and the environment, the disaster prevention and anti-disaster measures such as building reinforcement, earthquake mitigation and seepage prevention, and cultural relic repairs will be considered, designed and implemented simultaneously.
Enhance the space disaster prevention capabilities of cultural relics and implement overall protection. Organize and carry out special system research on cultural relics, dig deep into the unique disaster prevention system and disaster prevention functions of cultural relics, absorb ancient building construction and disaster prevention wisdom, and protect the safety of cultural relics as much as possible. For cultural relics of different protection levels, different structures, and different materials, differentiated disaster prevention and protection measures are adopted, combined with modern disaster prevention technologies, to form a more scientific and reasonable space disaster prevention system. The overall protection of the surrounding environment should be taken.
Pay attention to the application of science and technology and strengthen technical support. Use 5G, “Internet +”, digital twin, blockchain and other technologies to establish a cultural relics protection monitoring platform, and use satellite remote sensing, drones and other technical means to monitor cultural relics and the surrounding environment to achieve real-time data analysis and early warning settings, especially Pay attention to the correlation analysis between meteorological data and other data. With the help of advanced scientific instruments and equipment, research on the assessment and formation mechanism of diseases of immovable cultural relics; improve the level of disease management, and propose different protection methods for different types of diseases and disaster types.
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(Project team: Guangming Daily reporter Zhang Sheng, Wang Simin, Yang Jue, Chang He, Ding Yan, Wang Shengxi, Li Jianbin, Li Yun Guangming Daily correspondent Wang Yue)
“Guangming Daily” (07 Edition on October 25, 2021)