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Teeth: anatomy and classification

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Teeth are a very important part of our body, both from a functional point of view and from the point of view of physical appearance. But where does the term “tooth” come from? Why is it called that? Let’s find out together.

What is a tooth?

The teeth it’s a organ hard inside the mouth, implanted in the jaw or in the jaw with the function of cutting, shredding and shredding solid foods. Teeth also play an important role in phonation. The whole of them is said teeth.


Tooth anatomy

The teeth consist of a part protruding from the gum, the corona, and a sunken in the gum itself, the root. The dividing line between the two sides is called collar. The crown, of different shape according to the different functions of the tooth, has an anterior lingual face, a posterior vestibular face, two lateral contact faces and an upper chewing face. The latter is also covered by the nail varnish or adamantine substance, bright white in color, rich in minerals (aspartite etc.).

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Inside is the dentine O ivory, a particular variety of bone tissue that forms the scaffolding of the tooth. The fundamental substance, rich in fibre non-calcified collagen is crossed by numerous canaliculi (dentine canaliculi) in which the dental fibers are located, extensions of the cell (called odontoblasts) of the bone tissue of the dentin. There root of the tooth, also hard, has a yellowish color and generally conical shape; it can be, according to the case, single, double or multiple and it is firmly fixed in the alveolus of the bone.

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Everything is fine root has a hole called at its apex apical, the starting point of a canal that runs through it and then expands in the crown to form the so-called cavity of the tooth, which contains the pulp dental, a red, soft substance of fibrillar connective tissue, innervated and vascularized; vessels and nerves reach the pulp also penetrating through the apical hole of the root.

Collar e root are covered by the concrete, a thin crust of bone substance, similar in structure and chemical composition to normal bone tissue, which in the maxillary and mandibular bone adheres tightly to the part of the dentin found in the root and which keeps the collagen fibers of the periodontal. At eruption the teeth have the enamel surface covered with a thin one membranella, the cuticle of the tooth, which wears and disappears with chewing.


Classification and function of the teeth

Based on the shape of the crown and the function, the teeth can be distinguished into incisors, canini, premolari e molars. The incisors, whose specific function is to cut food, have a flattened crown in the buccal-lingual direction, with a sharp chewing face; the root is unique.

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I canini, more robust and sometimes slightly longer than the other teeth, they have a lanceolate shape with a pointed end, which helps to break up food; their root is single, but bifid in the lower canines. THE premolari they have a cubic shape, with a quadrangular chewing face with rounded corners and equipped with two cusps; the superior ones have two roots while the inferior ones have a rather large one.

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I molars, which are the most robust, they also have a cubic crown, with a wide chewing face and provided with 4 or 5 cusps (3 or 4 in the upper ones); the roots are two in the lower molars, three in the upper ones. Both premolars and molars serve a I will crush the foods. The teeth are set in alveoli teeth, excavated in the free margins (or alveolar processes) of the maxillary bones and protrude above the gum which, by means of a rim, helps to keep them in place.


The teeth then turn out firmly joint to the walls of the respective alveoli by means of the periodontal, a connective tissue rich in vessels and nerves, formed by bundles of radial collagen fibers that tightly connect the cementum of the root to the bony wall of the alveolus. In the human species, dentition is formed in childhood with deciduous teeth, destined to be replaced between the ages of 5 and 25 by permanent teeth (see dentition).

Deciduous teeth are 20, permanent ones 32; sometimes the last molars (wisdom tooth) don’t eruption, so that even those with 28-30 teeth. The tooth is often the site of processes morbid which can affect the actual tooth or affect the functional unit of which it belongs and which is defined as “odontoon”And including, in addition to the tooth, the alveolar bone, the ligament periodontal, the gum.

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