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The Balfour Declaration

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The Balfour Declaration

EOn November 2, 1917, during the Second World War, the United Kingdom made a public and formal announcement, where he provides his support for the settlement of the Jewish people in a territory of the Ottoman Empire called Palestine.

This formality was reflected in a document written and signed by Arthur James Balfour, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs (Foreign Office), a document sent to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland; It is imperative to clarify that the term Zionism is relative to a political movement that emerged at the end of the 19th century, which in its beginnings sought the reestablishment of a Jewish state and which currently pursues the development and protection of the independent state of Israel, and at the same time Like Palestine, they are based on postulates of a historical nature.

He November 29, 1947, the United Nations (UN) issued, two years after its creation and with a manifest inexperience, which over time was demonstrated, the inadequate resolution 181, coupled with the lack of a roadmap and the absence of willingness to execute said measure, which had consequences over time that still persist.

On that date, the partition of Palestine was formally voted through the aforementioned resolution 181, which allowed the division of the territory into two states (one Jewish and one Arab), which was done in a plenary assembly, the Brazilian being Osvaldo Aranha its president, the result of the vote was as follows: 33 votes in favor, 13 against and 10 abstentions; For this vote to be effective, it had to have a majority of 2/3 (two thirds), which was achieved with the change of position of Paraguay at the last minute (it was going to vote against) and the surprising affirmative vote of the USSR after the pogroms (lynching towards an ethnic, religious or other group, plus the destruction or plundering of their property) carried out on the Jews of Russia; Venezuela and Brazil voted in favor; Cuba voted against; Colombia, Argentina and Mexico abstained; many countries such as Spain and Morocco were not members of the UN until 1955 and 1956 respectively.


The refusal of the British government to carry out this plan, together with Jewish acceptance and the refusal of the Arab countries of the region to accept it, led to a civil war in the territory of Mandatory Palestine (exercised by the British) that broke out the day after the vote on the plan and the withdrawal of the British military forces stationed there, followed by the Arab-Israeli war of 1948 and the successive confrontations between Arabs and Jews, such as the 6-day war in 1967 or the Yom Kippur war in 1973, a whole spiral of violence that continues to this day.

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On October 7, 2023, Hamas carried out a surprise attack on Israel, resulting in fatalities, restarting the confrontation with the Jewish people. According to Joan Mas Autonell (professor of political science at Al Azhar Mukhaimar Abu Saada University) the operation was planned “in complete secrecy for more than a year”; To do this, Israeli villages were recreated and the essential part was to send the message to Israel’s military intelligence that Hamas was not interested in a conflict. Hamas in Arabic means: Enthusiasm, but it is actually an abbreviation of Harakat al-Muqáwama al-Islamiya (Islamic Resistance Movement), the aforementioned group is a political-military organization, with intrinsic components of Palestinian nationalism, jihadism and Islamism; Its north is the creation of a Palestinian state in what today includes Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, having Jerusalem as its capital, also citing historical reasons.


With the attack carried out, Hamas has managed to establish a new entry on the international agenda, managing to displace the war between Russia and Ukraine from the media focus, to remind the world that there is a conflict to be resolved in that region; At a military level, Hamas will have to demonstrate to the Palestinians that it has sufficient capacity to protect them from the Israeli offensive and in this way be able to completely displace the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization), which formally holds power in Palestine, but which really controls is Hamas.

For its part, Israel will have to resolve the conflict militarily within the shortest possible time, since as it passes, it will lose international support for its casus belli, because not all public opinion knows that asymmetric confrontation is a established form of fighting.


The Balfour Declaration made more than 100 years ago and which to this day brings us consequences that affect many countries, shows us that the positions of states at the international level must be weighed very carefully before issuing them; and if it has to be rectified, it is rectified, as the European Union did, which in the mouth of Ursula Von der Leyen (president of the European Commission) and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy (CFSP) Josep Borrell , were quick to provide their support to Israel and condemn Palestine (which is not Hamas), which is why the heads of government of the 27 member states changed that position, giving way to a new one, where it is stated that Israel can defend itself within the limits set by international law and at the same time maintaining economic aid (around 700 million euros annually) to the Palestinian people, calling for an agreement within dialogue, in search of a resolution to the conflict and lasting peace. in the region.

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Therefore, when nations establish their position, they must measure the times, calibrate the consequences that may occur to their own detriment, evaluate their own capabilities objectively, privileging the interests of the country above even the opinion held by the community. question on which one pronounces, in short, to split hairs.


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