Authors: Shi Jianxun, Liu Yu (Deputy Dean of National Institute of Innovation and Development of Tongji University, Special Researcher of Shanghai Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, Lecturer of Shanghai Second Polytechnic University)
During the two sessions of the country this year, General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out when visiting the members of the Democratic National Construction Association and the Federation of Industry and Commerce who participated in the CPPCC meeting that the private economy is our party’s long-term governance, uniting and leading the people of the whole country to achieve the “two centenary” goals and the greatness of the Chinese nation. An important force to revive the Chinese Dream. This important speech pointed out the direction for the high-quality development of the private economy and enhanced the confidence of private entrepreneurs in starting a business. Recently, the 20th Central Comprehensive Deepening Reform Committee deliberated and passed the “Opinions on Promoting the Development and Growth of the Private Economy”, which clearly pointed out that supporting the development of the private economy is the consistent policy of the Party Central Committee. The private economy is an important part of the socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. Private enterprises and private entrepreneurs are their own people. They are the contributors and beneficiaries of China’s reform and opening up and economic development miracles, and they are also an important force in promoting Chinese-style modernization in the new era. In-depth study and implementation of the spirit of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s important speech, and to promote the development and growth of the private economy, we should stand on the overall and strategic height of comprehensively promoting Chinese-style modernization, and pay close attention to deployment and implementation.
The private economy is an important force to promote Chinese-style modernization
Over the past 40 years of reform and opening up, under the guidance and encouragement of the party’s principles and policies, my country’s private economy has grown from small to large, from weak to strong, in promoting the development of the socialist market economy, stabilizing economic growth, providing sufficient products and services, and promoting innovation and entrepreneurship It has played an irreplaceable and important role in terms of national level, opening up the international market, increasing employment, etc., showing the remarkable characteristics of “56789”, that is, contributing more than 50% of tax revenue, more than 60% of GDP, and more than 70% of technological innovation results, more than 80% of urban labor employment, and more than 90% of the number of enterprises. Private enterprises account for more than 80% of the state-level specialized and special new “little giant” enterprises. As of the end of 2022, the number of private enterprises in my country has reached more than 47 million, more than quadrupling in ten years. It can be seen that the private economy has become an important economic foundation of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and it is an important force to accelerate the construction of a new development pattern, achieve high-quality economic development, and comprehensively build a modern and powerful socialist country.
The private economy is an important force for solidly promoting common prosperity, and developing and strengthening the private economy is an effective way to achieve common prosperity. In the early days of reform and opening up, Comrade Deng Xiaoping proposed to let some people and some regions get rich first, get rich first and then get rich first, first get rich first and then get rich later, and finally achieve common prosperity. Under the guidance of this policy, countless ordinary Chinese people have become rich through hard work and through innovation and entrepreneurship. Many private entrepreneurs have not only realized their dreams of wealth, but also promoted the development of enterprises, the prosperity of employees and economic prosperity. As an integrator of elements, a pioneer of the market, and a promoter of innovation, private entrepreneurs succeed through hard work and become rich through hard work. The private entrepreneurs who got rich first have demonstrated, led, driven and helped a large number of workers to achieve common prosperity through innovation and entrepreneurship. Chinese-style modernization is the modernization of common prosperity for all people, and self-employment is an important way to promote common prosperity. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the state has issued a number of policies to encourage “mass entrepreneurship and innovation”. Many innovative entrepreneurs have not only realized their own prosperity by giving full play to their own advantages and abilities, but also helped the groups participating in innovation and entrepreneurship to achieve prosperity. . At the same time, the private economy also plays an important role in promoting general prosperity, promoting the vigorous development of glorious undertakings and charities, and actively fulfilling social responsibilities. It can be seen that the development and growth of the private economy is the basic work for solidly promoting common prosperity. The practice of more than 40 years of reform and opening up has shown that private enterprises and the private economy play an indispensable role in stabilizing growth, promoting innovation, increasing employment, and improving people’s livelihood, and have become an important force in promoting economic and social development and promoting common prosperity. In order to achieve common prosperity in the future, private enterprises and individual industrial and commercial households must grow stronger and become more active.
Private enterprises are the main force of scientific and technological innovation, an important carrier for gathering elements of technological innovation, and an important force for realizing the country’s high-level technological self-reliance and self-improvement. In recent years, the innovation investment of my country’s private enterprises has continued to grow, the quality of innovation has improved significantly, and breakthroughs have been made in the quantity and quality of invention patents, and their important role in promoting technological innovation has become increasingly prominent. At present, my country’s private technology companies account for about 50% of the country’s high-tech companies, and they have become an increasingly active role in the innovation arena. At present, about 65% of national invention patents, about 70% of technological innovations and more than 80% of new products come from private enterprises. Behind this is the increasing R&D investment of private enterprises. In 2021, the total R&D expenditure of the top 1,000 private enterprises in the country’s R&D investment will reach 1.45 trillion yuan, accounting for 38.58% of the national R&D expenditure, a year-on-year increase of 23.14%. Private enterprises have their own outstanding advantages in scientific and technological innovation. They have a keen sense of the market, strong innovation motivation, flexible mechanism and quick response. They dare to set foot in new fields, adopt new technologies, develop new processes, and have the courage to continuously launch new products and provide new services. This is conducive to improving the transformation efficiency of new scientific and technological achievements, and also helps to accelerate the modernization of China’s industrial and supply chains and enhance national competitiveness. Therefore, on the new journey of building a modern country in an all-round way, it is necessary to give full play to the important role of private enterprises in scientific and technological innovation, effectively solve the difficulties and problems encountered by enterprises in the development process, enhance the innovation capabilities and core competitiveness of private enterprises, and cultivate a A large number of “professional, special and new” private enterprises have helped my country’s technological innovation level to achieve an overall improvement.
Private enterprises are an important force in building a new development pattern of dual cycles, expanding my country’s overseas development space, and promoting economic globalization. Customs statistics show that in 2022, there will be 510,000 private foreign trade enterprises with actual import and export performance in my country, and their total import and export volume will be 21.4 trillion yuan. For the first time, the annual proportion of import and export scale will exceed half, reaching 50.9%. The contribution rate reached 80.8%, and private foreign trade enterprises continued to play the role of foreign trade “stabilizer”. Overseas direct investment by private enterprises is also an active force to promote the integration of China’s economy into the world economy. Regardless of the number of projects or the amount of investment, private enterprises have already accounted for half of the “going global” of Chinese enterprises, and they are showing a more active trend. In recent years, the pace of “going out” of private enterprises has been significantly accelerated, and the level of international operation has been significantly improved. In terms of driving the export of related products, technologies, and services, promoting the transformation and upgrading of domestic industries, promoting the construction of the “Belt and Road”, and helping to build a new development pattern, etc. all play an important role. Private enterprises have a keen sense of the market and flexible production and operation mechanism, enabling them to quickly respond to the rapidly changing international market, and have unique advantages in exploring the international market. In the current severe international environment where the United States threatens “decoupling and breaking chains” and trade protectionism and unilateralism prevail, encouraging and supporting private enterprises to “go out” to grow stronger and to show their talents in international competition is the key to expanding China’s economic development space and building An important way for the new development pattern.
Take Multiple Measures to Promote the Development and Growth of Private Enterprises
Promoting the development and growth of the private economy is a long-term policy and a systematic project that requires top-level coordination and multiple strategies. At present, enhancing the confidence of market entities and stabilizing expectations is the key to promoting the development and growth of private enterprises. The report of the 20th National Congress of the Communist Party of China pointed out that “optimize the development environment of private enterprises and protect the property rights of private enterprises and the rights and interests of entrepreneurs according to law”, which provides reassurance for private entrepreneurs, enabling them to have clear expectations, invest with confidence, operate with peace of mind, and concentrate on innovation , Bold development. We must adhere to the principles and policies of “two unshakable” and “two healthy” for a long time, always treat private enterprises and private entrepreneurs as our own people, solve problems for private enterprises and private entrepreneurs, and let them eliminate their worries, let go of their burdens, and burst into action Entrepreneurial enthusiasm and initiative. Relevant government departments should play an active role in further optimizing the business development environment of private enterprises, removing institutional barriers that restrict private enterprises from participating in market competition fairly, safeguarding the property rights of private enterprises and the rights and interests of entrepreneurs in accordance with the law, and encouraging and supporting the development and growth of private enterprises.
At present, the difficulties faced by private enterprises are prominently manifested as “dilemma”, that is, difficulties in financing and difficulties in making profits. The external cause of the “dilemma” is the “two highs”, that is, high costs and high taxes; the internal cause is the “two lows”, that is, low value-added products and low technological content. From the perspective of private enterprises themselves, they need to practice new development concepts, deeply grasp the shortcomings and challenges they face in their own development, actively change their development methods, adjust their industrial structure, and transform their growth drivers. Shake, consciously follow the path of high-quality development, promote continuous progress of the enterprise from a higher starting point, become a strong innovation subject, accelerate transformation and upgrading, and extend to the high end of the industrial value chain. Only in this way can we digest the pressure of rising operating costs, enhance the core competitiveness of enterprises, and then truly get out of the predicament. Only in this way can the enterprise have the ability of sustainable development and realize the development with better quality, better efficiency, stronger competitiveness and greater influence.
“Guangming Daily” (version 11, May 9, 2023)